Volume 14 Supplement 1
Range of ventricular dimensions and function by steady-state free precession cine cardiac magnetic resonance in patients late after the Fontan operation
© Rathod et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Published: 1 February 2012
To characterize the range of ventricular size and function evaluated by steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in functional single ventricle (FSV) patients late after Fontan operation and to identify factors associated with FSV dysfunction.
Ventricular size and function is important in patients with FSV after Fontan and adverse remodeling has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Due to the limitations of echocardiography and other noninvasive techniques, CMR remains the gold standard for the assessment of ventricular size and function. However, the range and distribution of FSV size and function in this population has not been characterized in a large cohort across a broad range of ages using contemporary SSFP techniques.
All patients at our center following a Fontan operation who had a CMR study from 4/2002 to 1/2011 were retrospectively reviewed. In patients with multiple CMR studies, the most recent study was used for analysis. If 2 ventricles were present and connected to the systemic circulation, the end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were summated to describe total effective volumetric and function data. Examinations were performed on a 1.5 T scanner using a standardized, previously published imaging protocol. Combined EDVi, ESVi, and ventricular mass index (Massi) were indexed to BSA1.3. Other clinically relevant data including demographic information, cardiac diagnoses, surgical history, and clinical symptoms and outcomes were recorded. Ventricular dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 45% and variables associated with FSV dysfunction were analyzed.
SSFP measurements of ventricular size and function in Fontan patients
Mean ± SD
94 [76, 116]
94 ± 44
42 [32, 57]
50 ± 34
55 [47, 61]
54 ± 10
55 [43, 68]
60 ± 24
0.57 [0.48, 0.69]
0.63 ± 0.26
This study provides the range and distribution of ventricular size and function in a large cohort of patients late after the Fontan operation using contemporary CMR techniques and demonstrates important variations in those patients with significant systolic dysfunction.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.