Accelerated cine imaging with turbo or fast gradient echo. The conventional gradient echo pulse sequence (left) applies a single low flip angle rf pulse to generate a single gradient echo. One line of k-space is filled each R-R interval for each cardiac phase. The turbo or fast gradient echo pulse sequence (right) rapidly repeats the low flip angle rf pulse to generate multiple gradient echoes. Multiple lines of k-space are filled within each R-R interval by applying a different amplitude of phase encoding gradient to each echo. In this diagram each phase encoding gradient is colour coded corresponding to the line of k-space filled. In this example, four rf pulses are applied to generate four gradient echoes, a parameter setting known as turbofactor= 4 (Philips), no of segments = 4 (Siemens), no of views per segment = 4 (GE). This constitutes one 'shot'. The remaining lines of k-space are filled by acquiring multiple shots over successive heart beats. This provides a fourfold acceleration of the image acquisition time.