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Figure 27 | Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

Figure 27

From: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part I

Figure 27

Bright blood functional cine imaging using retrospectively-gated turbo or fast gradient echo. Either spoiled gradient echo or balanced SSFP pulse sequences may be used for this application. The number of lines of k-space acquired in each cardiac phase (in this example = 4) determines the acquisition time for this sequence (typically within a single breath-hold period). Increasing the number of lines (the turbofactor, no of segments or no of views per segment) shortens the acquisition time but increases the time between heart phases (the heart phase interval or 'TR'), resulting in poorer temporal resolution. bSSFP pulse sequences can achieve a shorter TR, resulting in shorter breath-hold periods for the same spatial and temporal resolution. The image examples show an end diastolic phase (cardiac phase 1) for spoiled gradient echo (left) and bSSFP (right). Note that the blood signal has more flow dependence for the spoiled gradient echo technique with the LV blood pool (through plane flow) is much brighter than the right ventricle (in-plane flow), whereas for the bSSFP technique they are of equal brightness due to the intrinsic contrast between blood and myocardium based on the T2/T1 ratio. Similarly, the slow-moving blood adjacent to endocardial border is partially saturated in the spoiled gradient echo image, resulting in poorer definition of the endocardial border. This leads to systematic differences in volumetric measurements between the two methods, with the bSSFP techniques yielding larger volumes and smaller ventricular masses.

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