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Table 1 Evolution of tagging pulse sequences

From: Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques–pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

Technique Inventor (Ref#) Year Advantages Disadvantages
Magnetization Saturation Zerhouni (20) 1988 Simple idea; first tagging technique. Low resolution; long scan time; high SAR.
SPAMM Axel (21) 1989 Low SAR; available for clinical applications. Moderate resolution; 2-D only; tag fading.
Cine SPAMM McVeigh (46) 1992 Cine capability. Multiple breath-holds.
Localized SPAMM Chandra (49)
Ikonomidou (51)
Tagging confined to region of interest. Complicated tag preparation.
Variable-density SPAMM McVeigh (50)
Ikonomidou (52)
Sensitive motion estimation. Long tag preparation time.
Radial tagging Bolster (54)
Bosmans (55)
Suitable for measuring radial strain & heart rotation. Low resolution for measuring circumferential strain.
Ring tagging Spiegel (28) 2003 Suitable for measuring circumferential strain. Low resolution for measuring radial strain.
DANTE Mosher (22) 1990 High-density pattern of thin tags. Long tag preparation time.
CSPAMM Fischer (23) 1993 Improved tagging contrast; no tag fading. Double scan time as SPAMM.
Slice-following (sf) CSPAMM Fischer (69) 1994 Tracks tissue through-plane motion. Lower SNR than CSPAMM.
Single breath-hold sf CSPAMM Stuber (77) 1999 Fast data acquisition; high temporal resolution. EPI may cause motion artifacts.
HARP Osman (24) 1999 Fast tag analysis. Phase errors; low SNR.
Real-time HARP Sampath (163) 2003 High temporal resolution. Complicated setup.
3D-HARP Pan (166) 2005 3D strain analysis. Long tag analysis time.
zHARP Abd-Elmoniem (167) 2005 3D tissue tracking; short scan time. Complicated data analysis.
fastHARP Abd-Elmoniem (164) 2007 Short data acquisition time; 25 frames/s. Complicated setup.
DENSE Aletras (25) 1999 High spatial resolution; black-blood Low SNR.
fast-DENSE Aletras (187) 1999 Single breath-hold. EPI artifacts.
meta-DENSE Aletras (181) 2001 higher SNR. Longer acquisition time.
DENSE with CANSEL Epstein (184) 2004 higher SNR; less artifacts. Long scan time.
SENC Osman (26) 2001 High resolution; simple processing; intuitive view. Low SNR.
sf-SENC Fahmy (208) 2006 Through-plane tracking. Low SNR.
fast-SENC Pan (209) 2006 Real-time imaging. Low resolution.
sf-fast-SENC Ibrahim (210) 2007 Real-time imaging with tissue tracking. Low resolution & SNR.
C-SENC Ibrahim (211) 2008 Both strain & viability information in one scan. No cine capability.