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Table 4 Summary of selected studies using 3 directionally encoded CMR velocity acquisitions in the heart and vessels.

From: Comprehensive 4D velocity mapping of the heart and great vessels by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Anatomy Study Title Subjects Findings
Heart Kim et al. * J Am Coll Cardiol 1995 [81] Left ventricular blood flow patterns in normal subjects: a quantitative analysis by three-dimensional magnetic resonance velocity mapping n = 26 Diastolic vortex formation in the left ventricle, in close temporal relation to the motion of the anterior mitral leaflet
  Kilner PJ et al. * Nature 2000 [79] Asymmetric redirection of flow through the heart. n = 22 Asymmetric redirection of streaming blood in atrial and ventricular cavities of the adult human heart
  Fyrenius A et al. Heart 2001 [56] Three dimensional flow in the human left atrium. n = 11 Global left atrial flow in the normal human heart comprises consistent patterns specific to the phase of the cardiac cycle
  Kozerke et al. J Magn Reson Imaging 2001 [23] Visualization of Flow Patterns Distal to Aortic Valve Prostheses in Humans Using a Fast Approach for Cine 3D Velocity Mapping n = 6 Distinct flow patterns reflecting aortic valve design were observed close to the valve. Further downstream, flow patterns varied considerably indicating the impact of varying aortic anatomy
  Bolger AF et al. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2007 [75] Transit of blood flow through the human left ventricle mapped by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. n = 18 Paths, compartmentalization and kinetic energy changes of blood flowing into the LV.
  Roes et al. Invest Radiol 2009 [91] Flow assessment through four heart valves simultaneously using 3-dimensional 3-directional velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging with retrospective valve tracking in healthy volunteers and patients with valvular regurgitation n = 29 Net flow volumes through the 4 heart valves were compared in 22 healthy volunteers and in 29 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who were suspected of valvular regurgitation.
  Eriksson et al. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2010 [43] Semi-automatic quantification of 4D left ventricular blood flow n = 9 Semi-automatic payhline analysis for the quantification of 4D blood flow resulted in accurate LV inflow and outflow volumes and high reproducibility
Large vessels Kilner PJ et al. * Circulation 1993 [55] Helical and retrograde secondary flow patterns in the aortic arch studied by three-directional MR velocity mapping. n = 10 Helical and retrograde streams are consistent features of intra-aortic flow in healthy subjects
  Bogren HG et al. ** J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995 [110] Magnetic resonance velocity vector mapping of blood flow in thoracic aortic aneurysms and grafts. n = 13 Altered flow patterns were found to be associated with altered vessel geometry
  Bogren HG et al. ** J Magn Reson Imaging 1997 [111] Blood flow patterns in the thoracic aorta studied with three-directional MR velocity mapping: the effects of age and coronary artery disease. n = 28 Significantly different flow characteristics in normal subjects compared with patients and during ageing
  Kvitting et al. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004 [86] Flow patterns in the aortic root and the aorta studied with time-resolved, 3-dimensional, phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging: Implications for aortic valve-sparing surgery n = 8 Patients with Marfan syndrome 6 months after aortic valve-sparing surgery with straight Dacron grafts and normal volunteers
  Bogren HG et. Al ** J Magn Reson Imaging 2004[112] 4D MR velocity mapping of blood flow patterns in the aorta in patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease compared to age-matched normal subjects. n = 41 Increased retrograde velocity in patients with atherosclerosis compared to normal subjects. The aging process has a similar effect on blood flow patterns as atherosclerosis.
  Markl M et al. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005 [85] Time-resolved three-dimensional magnetic resonance velocity mapping of aortic flow in healthy volunteers and patients after valve-sparing aortic root replacement. n = 22 Altered aortic flow dynamics in patients undergoing various types of valve-sparing aortic root replacement.
  Reiter G, et al Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2008 [88] MR-derived 3D blood flow patterns in the main pulmonary artery as a marker of pulmonary hypertension and a measure of elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. n = 48 Vortices of blood flow in the main pulmonary artery enable the identification of manifest pulmonary hypertension. Elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressures is related to vortex duration
  Frydrychowicz A, et al. J Magn Reson Imaging 2009 [89] Three-dimensional analysis of segmental wall shear stress in the aorta by flow-sensitive four-dimensional-MRI. n = 31 Normal distribution of vectorial WSS and OSI in the entire thoracic aorta derived from flow-sensitive 4D-MRI data
  Harloff A et al. Magn Reson Med 2010 [96] In vivo assessment of wall shear stress in the atherosclerotic aorta using flow-sensitive 4D MRI. n = 93 Predictive value of WSS for plaque existence depends on the aortic segment. Locations of critical wall parameters move to neighboring segments of regions affected by atherosclerosis
  Hope MD et al. Radiology 2010 [58] Bicuspid aortic valve: four-dimensional MR evaluation of ascending aortic systolic flow patterns. n = 53 Abnormal helical systolic flow in the ascending aorta of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve.
  Markl M et al. Magn Reson Med 2010 [68] Estimation of global aortic pulse wave velocity by flow-sensitive 4D MRI. n = 46 Pulse wave velocity based on four-dimensional MRI data was higher in patients with atherosclerosis compared to age-matched controls and younger volunteers
  Hope MD et al. J Magn Reson Imaging 2010 [44] Clinical evaluation of aortic coarctation with 4D flow MR imaging. n = 34 Hemodynamic significance was established by evaluating collateral blood flow. Distorted blood flow patterns in the descending aorta were detected after coarctation repair
  Harloff A et al. Stroke; 2010 [93] Complex plaques in the proximal descending aorta: an underestimated embolic source of stroke. n = 94 Retrograde flow from complex plaques in the descending aorta can explain embolism to all brain territories as a new source of stroke.
  1. Earlier studies acquired this data relative to 2D cine velocity acquisitions in oblique* or stacked** planes. The remainder used 3D cine (4D) acquisitions.