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Table 1 General Characteristic by Group

From: Presence of mechanical dyssynchrony in Duchenne Muscular dystrophy: a cardiac MRI study utilizing cross correlation delay

  Group     
Parameter A (n=77) B (n=90) C (n=111) D (n=19) E (n=16)
Age (years) (min, max) 13.9 ± 8.9 (4.8, 46.6) 8.5 ± 0.9** (6.6, 10.0) 12.9 ± 2.8 (10.0, 24.8) 15.0 ± 3.9 (10.3, 24.0) 17.3 ± 5.4** (8.7, 26.4)
LVEF (%) (min, max) 64.6 ± 5.9 (48.9, 76.2) 65.0 ± 4.8 (55.2, 82.7) 64.4 ± 5.8 (55.3, 83.3) 49.4 ± 6.6** (31.6, 54.4) 36.5 ± 12.2** (17.3, 54.0)
XCDa(ms) 45.6 ± 16.9 (0, 83.3) 35.3 ± 16.6 (0, 70.5) 38.2 ± 19.8 (0, 112.5) 52.2 ± 22.4 (27.5, 105) 73.0 ± 41.9 (21.3, 157.5)
US_max (min, max) 0.97 ± 0.04 (0.84, 1.00) 0.98 ± 0.03 (0.90, 1.00) 0.97 ± 0.03 (0.86, 1.00) 0.97 ± 0.04 (0.88, 1.00) 0.92 ± 0.08** (0.73, 1.00)
TTMS (min, max) 78.2 ± 31.8 (0.0, 148.8) 65.4 ± 22.9** (21.3, 157.5) 71.2 ± 24.0 (21.3, 105.8) 95.1 ± 19.6** (56.5, 140.0) 111.4 ± 33.0** (63.8, 157.5)
RVV_max (min, max) 0.95 ± 0.57 (0.10, 2.8) 1.03 ± 0.55 (0.04, 2.7) 1.13 ± 0.57 (0.14, 2.7) 1.03 ± 0.51 (0.35, 2.16) 1.34 ± 0.57** (0.42, 2.2)
STD_peak (min, max) 31.7 ± 12.0 (0, 56.1) 26.7 ± 8.4** (11.6, 55.1) 29.6 ± 9.7 (8.7, 52.7) 36.5 ± 6.9 (21.3, 47.8) 46.1 ± 16.6** (24.8, 75.7)
QRS (min, max) 92.8 ± 11.41 85.1 ± 7.8** (70, 104) 86.6 ± 8.0** (68, 109) 86.1 ± 13.4 (68, 126) 97.1 ± 21.9 (80, 134)
εcc (min, max) -18.2 ± 4.5 (-17.4, -25.5) -14.2 ± 1.4** (-10.4, -16.3) -13.2 ± 2.0** (-6.5, -16.5) -10.7 ± 2.1 (-7.4, -14.2) -7.0 ± 2.8 (-2.8, -11.9)
  1. εcc = Circumferential strain, Group A = Control subjects, Group B = DMD age ≤10 yrs, Group C = DMD age > 10 yrs with normal EF and MDE negative, Group D = DMD age > 10 yrs with reduced EF and MDE negative, Group E = DMD age > 10 years with reduced EF and positive MDE, LVEF = Left ventricular ejection fraction, MDE = myocardial delayed enhancement, STD = Standard deviation, TTMS = Time to maximum strain, US = Uniformity of strain, RVV = Regional vector of variance, XCD = Cross correlation delay, XCDa = maximum of (XCD 1-4, XCD 2-5 and XCD 3.6).