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Table 3 Grading system for evaluating flow patterns in right heart chambers

From: 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping of alterations of right heart flow patterns and main pulmonary artery hemodynamics in tetralogy of Fallot

RA 1 normal, single clockwise vortexa
  2 increased number of vortices
RV diastole 1 normal right-handed helix through TV
  2 increased number of vortices
RV systole 1 uniform, laminar flow toward RVOT
  2 non-uniform, random, or disorganized
  1. RA = right atrium; RV = right ventricle
  2. awhen viewed from the patients' right with the sinus venosus posterior and tricuspid valve anterior.