Short axis slice through the ventricles showing epicardial and endocardial border segmentation of the RV (white) and the LV (red). The inter-venticular septum is included in the LV mass, Ventricular mass index (VMI) is defined as RV mass divided by LV mass. The endocardial borders of the RV and LV were traced for calculation of end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV). EDV and ESV were calculated by summation of the product (area × slice distance) for all slices. SV is given by SV = EDV-ESV calculated for both RV and LV.