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Table 2 Incidence of supra-physiologic-helix and vortex pattern

From: Evaluation of 3D blood flow patterns and wall shear stress in the normal and dilated thoracic aorta using flow-sensitive 4D CMR

incidence [n (%)] Helix Vortex flow
grading AAo arch DAo AAo arch DAo
patients, dilated aorta 16 (48%)* # 5 (15%)* # 3 (9%) 31 (94%)* # 4 (12%) 3 (9%)
n=33       
age-matched controls 2 (13%) 2 (13%) 2 (13%) 7 (47%) + 2 (13%) 1 (7%)
n = 15       
healthy volunteers 1 (7%) none none none none none
n = 15       
  1. Note. - Table 2 shows the incidence of helix and vortex flow in the AAo (ascending aorta), aortic arch and DAo (descending aorta) of the three study cohorts.
  2. *: significant differences (p<.05) between aneurysm patients and age-matched controls.
  3. #: significant differences (p<.05) between aneurysm patients and healthy volunteers.
  4. +: significant differences (p<.05) between age matched controls and healthy volunteers.