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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Relationship between coronary flow reserve evaluated by phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance and serum eicosapentaenoic acid

  All patients High EPA group Low EPA group *P value
  (n = 127) (n = 64) (n = 63)  
Age 71.6 ± 7.8 71.8 ± 7.6 70.1 ± 9.1 0.18
Male 116 (91%) 60 (94%) 56 (89%) 0.12
Height, cm 163.4 ± 7.1 162.9 ± 7.7 164.4 ± 6.5 0.29
Body weight, kg 65.4 ± 11.1 65.9 ± 11.7 64.3 ± 9.7 0.51
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.3 ± 3.0 24.6 ± 3.2 23.7 ± 2.5 0.69
Systolic BP, mmHg 137.9 ± 20.8 135.7 ± 19.2 140.5 ± 22.3 0.24
Diastolic BP, mmHg 70.7 ± 12.6 69.6 ± 13.3 71.8 ± 11.9 0.35
Heart rate, beats per minute 67.9 ± 12.4 66.3 ± 10.7 69.6 ± 13.8 0.18
Cardiovascular history     
  Myocardial infarction 42 (33%) 19 (30%) 23 (37%) 0.64
  Angina pectoris 64 (50%) 35 (55%) 29 (46%) 0.22
Coronary risk factors     
  Hypertension 93 (73%) 47 (73%) 46 (73%) 0.88
  Dyslipidemia 92 (72%) 46 (72%) 46 (73%) 0.84
  Diabetes Mellitus 39 (31%) 20 (31%) 19 (30%) 0.89
  Current smoking 16 (13%) 9 (14%) 7 (11%) 0.48
  Family history of CAD 6 (5%) 3 (5%) 3 (5%) 0.92
  Obesity 41 (32%) 25 (39%) 16 (25%) 0.13
Blood test results     
  EPA, μg/mL 85.3 ± 53.9 121.5 ± 53.3 48.4 ± 16.9 <0.001
  DHA, μg/mL 139.1 ± 54.4 163.2 ± 51.9 109.0 ± 35.2 <0.001
  AA, μg/mL 178.6 ± 52.9 171.0 ± 47.3 179.6 ± 52.5 0.34
  Total cholesterol, mmol/L 179.0 ± 38.6 183.1 ± 36.7 172.8 ± 37.9 0.12
  LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 101.9 ± 26.7 106.6 ± 31.7 100.2 ± 27.5 0.23
  HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 57.3 ± 15.9 66.1 ± 64.0 53.0 ± 14.3 0.12
  Triglyceride, mmol/L 179.0 ± 38.6 171.1 ± 125.1 157.6 ± 105.6 0.51
  Hemoglobin, g/dL 14.3 ± 1.6 14.3 ± 1.4 14.1 ± 1.6 0.58
  HbA1c, % 6.0 ± 0.9 6.0 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 0.8 0.21
  eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 65.7 ± 14.0 64.5 ± 13.2 65.6 ± 13.6 0.65
  CRP, mg/dL 0.30 ± 1.0 0.15 ± 0.21 0.42 ± 1.37 0.25
  BNP, pg/dl 53.3 ± 65.0 46.6 ± 43.9 45.9 ± 63.2 0.94
Medication use     
  Statin 82 (65%) 41 (64%) 41 (65%) 0.86
  Antiplatelet agent 108 (85%) 52 (81%) 56 (89%) 0.91
  Calcium channel blocker 45 (35%) 22 (34%) 23 (37%) 0.99
  β blocker 48 (38%) 21 (33%) 27 (43%) 0.26
  ACE/ARB 73 (57%) 33 (52%) 40 (63%) 0.17
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
  2. * P value represents significance of difference between low EPA group and high EPA group.
  3. EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; AA, arachidonic acid, DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; BP, blood pressure; CAD, coronary artery disease; LDL; low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein, eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB angiotensin receptor blocker.