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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with normal (no Pathology) and abnormal (any Pathology) CMR

From: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance risk stratification in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis

  CMR normal CMR not normal p-value OR (95% - CI)
  (n = 225) (n = 180)   
Age [years] 46 (35.6-57.1) 49.7 (38.6-64.3) <0.01  
Gender, female 122 (54.2) 55 (30.6) <0.0001 2.69 (1.78-4.06)
Referring physician     
 Inpatients 108 (48.0) 114 (63.3) <0.01 0.56 (0.38-0.84)
 Outpatients referred by cardiologists 98 (43.6) 56 (31.1) <0.05 1.71 (1.13-2.58)
 Outpatients referred by general practitioners 19 (8.4) 10 (5.6) 0.26 1.57 (0.71-3.46)
Primary cardiac symptoms leading to CMR     
 Reduced LVEF 15 (6.7) 67 (37.2) <0.0001 0.12 (0.07-0.22)
 Pericardial effusion 4 (1.8) 2 (1.1) 0.58 1.61 (0.29-8.90)
 ECG abnormality 77 (34.2) 54 (30.0) 0.37 1.21 (0.80-1.85)
 Palpitations 66 (29.3) 26 (14.4) <0.001 2.46 (1.48-4.07)
 Dyspnea 59 (26.2) 78 (43.3) <0.001 0.46 (0.31-0.71)
 Angina/Chest pain 132 (58.7) 85 (47.2) <0.05 1.59 (1.07-2.35)
 Abnormal fatigue 57 (25.3) 39 (21.8) 0.41 1.22 (0.77-1.94)
 Wall motion abnormality 8 (3.6) 9 (5.0) 0.47 0.70 (0.26-1.85)
 Ventricular arrythmias/Extrasystoles 29 (12.9) 16 (8.9) 0.20 1.52 (0.80-2.89)
 Aborted SCD 3 (1.3) 3 (1.7) 0.78 0.80 (0.16-4.00)
Viral prodrome/history of infectious symptoms 69 (30.7) 61 (33.9) 0.49 0.86 (0.57-1.31)
Atrial fibrillation 14 (6.2) 36 (20.1) <0.0001 0.26 (0.14-0.51)
Elevated troponin 8(3.6) 30 (16.7) <0.0001 0.18 (0.08-0.41)
EMB performed 12 (5.7) 66 (38.6) <0.0001 0.10 (0.05-0.19)
 Histopathological myocarditis in EMB 7 (58.3) 46 (70.8) 0.39 0.58 (0.16-2.05)
CMR imaging parameters     
 LVEF [%] 66 (62.0-70.0) 54 (38.0-63.0) <0.0001  
 LV-EDV [ml] 122 (103–148) 160 (128–204) <0.0001  
 LV-ESV [ml] 42 (32.0-51.5) 72 (52–109) <0.0001  
 LVEDD [mm] 48 (44–52) 54 (49–59) <0.0001  
 Pericardial effusion present 0 76 (42.5) <0.0001  
 LGE present 0 114 (64.0) <0.0001  
Symptoms at follow-up     
 Angina pectoris 40 (19.8) 23 (15.0) 0.24 1.40 (0.80-2.45)
 Other chest pain (non anginal) 17 (8.5) 15 (9.8) 0.66 0.85 (0.41-1.76)
 Palpitations 34 (16.9) 22 (14.4) 0.52 1.21 (0.68-2.17)
 NYHA class ≥ 2 53 (24.9) 58 (36.3) <0.05 0.58 (0.37-0.91)
Medication     
 Betablockers at follow-up 51 (24.4) 80 (49.1) <0.0001 0.33 (0.22-0.52)
 ACEI/ARB at follow-up 39 (18.7) 68 (41.7) <0.0001 0.32 (0.20-0.51)
Events during follow-up     
 Death 2 (0.9) 11 (6.1) <0.01 0.14 (0.03-0.63)
 Cardiac death 0 7 (63.6) 0.51  
 Aborted SCD 0 1 (0.6) 0.25  
 ICD shocks 0 2 (1.3) 0.10  
 Hospitalization for heart failure 1 (0.5) 16 (9.5) <0.0001 0.04 (0.01-0.34)
  1. Values shown are n (%) or medians (25th–75th percentile). Abbreviations are the same as in Table 1.