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Table 1 angle measurements and trans-valvular velocity mapping.

From: The added value of streamline visualization in the evaluation of left atrioventricular valve flow and left ventricular diastolic function with 4DFlow MRI

  Volunteers
N = 25
Patients
N = 25
Angle measurements At annulus At peak velocity At annulus At peak velocity
Angle annulus - long axis (angle 1) (degree) 95 (3) 95 (3) 98 (9) 98 (9)
Angle of inflow at E (respectively angle 2 and 3) (degree) 83 (9) 85 (8) 88 (8) 79 (12) ** +
Angle between long axis and inflow at E (difference between angle 1 and 2/3) (degree) 12 (9) 10 (8) 10 (10) 19 (11) ** ++
Angle of inflow at A peak (degree) 77 (8)   85 (12) ++  
Distance annulus level to peak velocity level (mm)   14 (6)   15 (6)
Reformat plane At annulus At peak velocity level and angulated perpendicular to inflow At annulus At peak velocity level and angulated perpendicular to inflow
Flow volume (ml) 78 (21) 77 (20) 66 (18)+ 70 (20) **
Aorta flow (ml) 75 (22) 69 (21)
Difference with aorta flow (mL and
Limits of agreement)
-2.2 (6.1)
-14.1;9.6
-2.0 (6.1)
-14.1;10.0
2.6 (7.6)
-12.3;17.5
-0.9 (4.5)
-9.7;7.9
Absolute error (mL) 5.0 (4.5) 4.4 (5.0) 5.9 (5.4) 3.6 (2.7) *
Correlation with aorta flow (R square) .923 .922 .872 .954
Peak flow rate E (ml/s) 452 (123) 500 (118) ** 406 (82) 414 (82) +
Peak flow rate A (ml/s) 192 (67) 194 (72) 201 (66) 201 (70)
Peak velocity E (cm/s) 71 (15) 85 (14) ** 68 (19) 94 (25) **
Peak velocity A (cm/s) 36 (18) 41 (18) ** 40 (18) 47 (20) *
E/A ratio from peak flow rate 2.5 (0.7) 2.8 (0.8) * 2.2 (1.0) 2.3 (1.1)
E/A ratio from peak velocity 1.8 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) 1.6 (0.5) 1.8 (0.6) **
  1. Mean (standard deviation) are given with *(p < 0.05) and ** (p < 0.01) indicating statistical significance between measurements at annulus level and at peak velocity level; + (p < 0.05) and ++ (p < 0.01) indicating statistical significant differences between patients and volunteers.