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Table 1 Viscous energy loss characteristics of AVSD- repaired patients in the presence and absence of E-filling vortex ring formation

From: Impact of disturbed diastolic vortex formation on viscous energy loss in the left ventricle: Quantitative 4D Flow MRI analysis of healthy controls and repaired atrioventricular septal defect patients

  Control (N=23) Patients with absent E-vortex ring core (N=5) Patients with E-vortex ring core (N=18)
EL (mJ/mL) a 0.21 ±0.07 0.77 ± 0.56* 0.25 ± 0.08
VFT 2.85 ±0.57 5.65 ± 2.1* 2.36 ± 0.61
Inflow area (cm2) 8.6 ± 1.9 5.7 ± 1.6* 9.08 ± 2.69
Age (yrs) 19 ± 8 18 ± 6 20 ± 8
Heart rate (bpm) 73 ± 13 82 ± 23 77 ± 10
Diastasis duration (ms) 91 ± 75 0 ± 0 (N=3) ** 53 ± 68
E/A ratio 2.7 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.9 (N=3)** 2.4 ± 1.2
  1. a EL is normalized by end diastolic LV volume
  2. *statistically significant with P<0.01 compared to controls
  3. ** Two cases had no A-wave