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Table 1 Iron oxide nanoparticle preparations

From: Vascular and plaque imaging with ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide

Particle Size (Diameter) Plasma half-life (h) Application
Microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs) 1–6 μm [53] 1–2 min Readily endocytosed and detected with CMR [53]. Need immediate scan following infusion.
Can be combined with ligands for cellular targets allowing molecular imaging [54].
Large size means they remain in the blood pool and are suitable for endovascular imaging t [55].
Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) 65–150 nm [56] 2–3 h Ferumoxide (Endorem, Guerbet, France) and ferucarbotran (Resovist, Bayer-Schering Pharma, Germany).
Recognised by cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Have been used for oncological imaging including liver studies where they are taken up by Kuppfer cells in normal tumour-free liver [57].
Mesenchymal stem cell, monocyte/macrophage labelling [58].
Ultrasmall SPIO (USPIOs) <50 nm [59] Ferumoxytol: 9–15 h Ferumoxtran-10 (Sinerem, Guerbet, France) and ferumoxytol (Rienso, Takeda, United Kingdom).
Ferumoxtran-10: 25–30 h
Very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOPs) <10 nm [60] 1 h Alternative blood pool agents with longer circulating half-life than gadolinium based agents [61, 62].
Potential as cell tracking agents [63].