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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Pulmonary artery to aorta ratio for the detection of pulmonary hypertension: cardiovascular magnetic resonance and invasive hemodynamics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Variable mPAP < 30 mmHg 40 patients (36 %) mPAP ≥ 30 mmHg 71 patients (64 %) All 111 patients p value
Clinical parameters
Age [years] 68.9 ± 10.6 70.6 ± 8.4 70.0 ± 9.3 0.348
Male sex [%] 32.5 32.4 32.4 0.991
BSA [m2] 1.9 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 0.367
AFib [%] 51.3 67.1 61.5 0.103
Diabetes [%] 23.1 50.0 40.4 0.006
HbA1c [%] 5.9 ± 0.6 6.3 ± 1.0 6.2 ± 0.9 0.028
Smoking [%] 33.3 43.3 39.6 0.312
CAD* [%] 5.1 27.1 19.3 0.005
Hypertension [%] 94.9 100.0 98.2 0.056
BMI [kg/m2] 29.3 ± 6.3 31.4 ± 6.0 30.7 ± 6.1 0.079
Heart rate [beats/min] 72.2 ± 14.8 70.8 ± 13.3 71.4 ± 13.8 0.626
6-MWD [m] 396.7 ± 104.3 301.0 ± 110.2 334.4 ± 117.0 <0.001
GFR [mL/min/1.73m2] 64.9 ± 22.7 59.10 ± 17.4 61.0 ± 19.5 0.142
NT-proBNP [pg/ml] 1363.8 ± 2127.4 2252.1 ± 3746.1 1934.8 ± 3278.6 0.171
NYHA     0.081
II [%] 41.0 23.2 29.6  
III [%] 56.4 66.7 63.0  
IV [%] 2.6 10.1 7.4  
Hemodynamic parameters
mPAP [mmHg] 23.9 ± 3.6 39.1 ± 8.0 33.7 ± 10.0 <0.001
sPAP [mmHg] 36.7 ± 6.1 61.5 ± 15.4 52.6 ± 17.5 <0.001
dPAP [mmHg] 15.9 ± 4.0 25.3 ± 6.2 21.9 ± 7.1 <0.001
PAWP [mmHg] 15.5 ± 3.3 22.1 ± 4.3 19.7 ± 5.1 <0.001
LVEDP [mmHg] 16.1 ± 4.6 22.4 ± 6.0 20.3 ± 6.3 <0.001
PVR [dyne*sec/cm5] 134.8 ± 67.4 276.9 ± 125.1 226.5 ± 127.7 <0.001
PAC [ml/mmHg] 3.9 ± 2.1 2.3 ± 0.9 2.9 ± 1.7 <0.001
CO [l/min] 5.3 ± 1.5 5.2 ± 1.2 5.2 ± 1.3 0.829
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging parameters
LV EDD [mm] 46.5 ± 4.7 47.8 ± 6.3 47.3 ± 5.8 0.259
LV EDV [ml] 117.7 ± 33.5 133.5 ± 52.6 127.9 ± 47.1 0.057
LV EDVi [ml/m2] 62.4 ± 18.4 68.3 ± 23.7 66.2 ± 22.0 0.160
LV EF [%] 62.7 ± 10.6 63.3 ± 11.9 63.1 ± 11.4 0.813
LV mass [g] 108.4 ± 37.6 117.5 ± 36.1 113.0 ± 36.8 0.250
IVS [mm] 11.5 ± 2.6 11.6 ± 2.2 11.5 ± 2.3 0.924
LA diameter [mm] 62.9 ± 8.7 66.7 ± 9.3 65.3 ± 9.2 0.035
LA area [cm2] 28.3 ± 6.8 33.5 ± 10.2 31.6 ± 9.4 0.005
RV EDD [mm] 38.9 ± 5.9 40.8 ± 8.1 40.1 ± 7.4 0.193
RV EDV [ml] 143.4 ± 39.6 160.0 ± 67.1 151.3 ± 51.7 0.109
RV EDVi [ml/m2] 76.1 ± 20.7 80.5 ± 29.2 78.9 ± 26.4 0.453
RV EF [%] 50.9 ± 9.1 52.5 ± 11.3 51.9 ± 10.6 0.452
RA diameter [mm] 63.5 ± 8.7 66.7 ± 8.9 65.5 ± 9.0 0.072
RA area [cm2] 28.3 ± 8.9 30.5 ± 8.8 29.7 ± 8.9 0.221
LGE present [%] 25.0 34.8 31.2 0.288
Amount of LGE*** [%] 6.8 ± 2.7 9.6 ± 4.7 8.8 ± 4.3 0.093
Subendocardial [%] 0 5.8 3.7 0.294**
Midmyocardial [%] 2.5 10.1 7.3 0.254**
RV insertion point [%] 22.5 18.8 20.2 0.646
  1. BSA indicates body surface area, AFib atrial fibrillation, CAD coronary artery disease, BMI body mass index, 6-MWD six minute walk distance, GFR glomerular filtration rate, NYHA New York Heart Association functional class, mPAP mean pulmonary artery pressure, sPAP systolic pulmonary artery pressure, dPAP diastolic pulmonary artery pressure, PAWP pulmonary artery wedge pressure, LVEDP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, PVR pulmonary vascular resistance, PAC Pulmonary artery compliance, CO cardiac output, LV left ventricle, EDD end-diastolic diameter, EDV end-diastolic volume, i indexed to body surface area, EF ejection fraction, IVS interventricular septum thickness, LA left atrium, RV right ventricle, RA right atrium, LGE Late Gadolinium Enhancement
  2. *non-significant coronary artery disease or prior revascularization
  3. ** p-values derive from Fisher’s exact test
  4. ***Amount of Late Gadolinium Enhancement is given in % of total left ventricular volume