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Fig. 1 | Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

Fig. 1

From: 2D cine DENSE with low encoding frequencies accurately quantifies cardiac mechanics with improved image characteristics

Fig. 1

The effect of encoding frequency (ke) and artifact suppression techniques on the DENSE k-space. These simulations of the DENSE k-space illustrate the effect of ke and artifact suppression techniques. Consider the first k-space in column 1. The echo at the center of k-space is the desired stimulated echo (S). The echo to its right is the T1 relaxation echo (T). The third echo is the stimulated anti-echo (A). Stripe artifacts are generated by the T1 echo and the anti-echo. With no echo suppression technique, a high ke must be used to shift both artifact-generating echoes beyond the sampled region of k-space (column 1). With CSPAMM echo suppression, the T1 echo is suppressed (column 2). Through-plane dephasing selectively dephases the anti-echo and the T1 echo (column 3). The use of CSPAMM and through-plane dephasing together suppresses both artifact-generating echoes, which removes the dependence on high ke for artifact suppression (column 4)

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