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Table 2 Quantitative analysis of breath-hold and free-breathing scans in healthy volunteers

From: Improved dark blood imaging of the heart using radial balanced steady-state free precession

Measure Protocol 1 Protocol 2 Protocol 3 Protocol 4 Protocol 5 ANOVA P-value
bSSFP bSSFP bSSFP FSE FSE
1 shot 72 views 1 shot 35 views 4 shots BW305 BW977
CNR (breath-hold) 15.1 (4.3)ab 13.6 (5.4)ab 24.2 (7.2)a 46.7 (17.6) 24.5 (13.8)a <0.001
tSNR (free-breathing) 7.0 (2.5)abc 9.3 (1.8)b 20.2 (5.2) 8.9 (3.0)b 12.9 (6.6) <0.001
Sharpness (breath-hold) 0.30 (0.10) 0.43 (0.03)d 0.47 (0.09)d 0.47 (0.07) 0.38 (0.13)a <0.01
Sharpness (free-breathing) 0.31 (0.10)c 0.49 (0.11) 0.30 (0.06)c 0.38 (0.11) 0.29 (0.08)ac <0.01
  1. Data presented as mean (standard deviation) across n = 6 subjects, except for protocol 2 where n = 5. P values for ANOVA and post-hoc analyses derived from n = 5 paired data
  2. a P < 0.05 versus protocol 4, FSE BW305
  3. b P < 0.05 versus protocol 3, bSSFP 4shots
  4. c P < 0.05 versus protocol 2, bSSFP 1shot 35views
  5. d P < 0.05 versus protocol 1, bSSFP 1shot 72views
  6. bSSFP balanced steady-state free precession, FSE fast spin echo, BW receiver bandwidth, ANOVA repeated-measures analysis of variance, CNR contrast-to-noise ratio, tSNR temporal signal-to-noise ratio