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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of HCM patients and controls

From: Quantification of mitral regurgitation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using aortic and pulmonary flow data: impacts of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and different left ventricular segmentation methods

  HCM patients with LVOT obstruction (LVOTO+)
n = 52
HCM patients without LVOT obstruction (LVOTO−)
n = 91
Controls
n = 15
Overall
p-value
p-values for pairwise comparisons
LVOTO+ vs. LVOTO− LVOTO+ vs. controls LVOTO− vs. controls
Age, years 52.9 ± 13.7 44.6 ± 15.3 37.5 ± 17.8 <0.001 0.001 0.0007 0.11
Sex (males/females), n (%) 32/20 (61.5/38.5) 56/35 (61.5/38.5) 12/3 (80/20) 0.37 1.0 0.23 0.25
LVEDV (ml/m2) 97.1 (87.1–106.1) 90.7 (80.1–98.4) 95.8 (83.2–102.9) 0.005 0.0015 0.40 0.21
LVESV (ml/m2) 32.4 (27.5–39.1) 33.0 (28.0–38.6) 30.8 (29.2–40.9) 0.97 0.81 0.89 0.89
LVSV (ml/m2) 70.0 (58.0–70.6) 55.6 (47.3–60.1) 57.7 (54.6–66.8) <0.0001 <0.0001 0.12 0.07
LVM (g/m2) 96.6 (74.1–109.7) 69.2 (59.1–86.2) 58.7 (50.1–66.2) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.002
LVEF (%) 65.7 (61.7–69.9) 63.1 (59.4–66.0) 64.0 (61.1–69.0) 0.004 0.0009 0.23 0.36
Ao (ml/beat) 80.1 ± 19.6 82.2 ± 16.7 101.0 ± 17.1 <0.001 0.66 0.0006 0.0001
MPA (ml/beat) 90.4 ± 21.7 82.4 ± 16.5 101.1 ± 17.5 <0.001 0.014 0.08 0.0001
NetAo (ml/beat) 78.0 ± 19.6 80.8 ± 16.4 100.0 ± 17.1 <0.001 0.37 0.0001 0.0001
NetMPA (ml/beat) 89.6 ± 22.0 81.4 ± 16.3 100.1 ± 17.0 <0.001 0.012 0.10 0.0001
Qp:Qs 1.13 (1.05–1.21) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) <0.001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.11
Velocity encoding (cm/s)
 Ao PC images 160 (130–180) 140 (130–160) 130 (130–160) 0.0009 0.003 0.08 0.90
 MPA PC image 120 (100–130) 100 (100–120) 120 (100–130) 0.003 0.001 0.68 0.10
Heart rate (beats per minute)
 Cine images 64 (58–69)* 66 (60–74)# 64 (58–69) 0.28 0.18 0.25 0.50
 Ao PC images 61 (56–69)* 64 (58–70)# 63 (61–76) 0.22 0.13 0.17 0.61
 MPA PC images 61 (57–68)* 63 (58–69)# 65 (60–72) 0.25 0.29 0.12 0.30
  1. Data are presented as the means ± SD, as medians with interquartile ranges or as numbers and percentages
  2. LV parameters (LVEDV, LVESV, LVSV, LVM, and LVEF) were calculated using a method that included papillary muscles and trabeculations in the blood pool
  3. Ao aortic, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic volume, LVOTO left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, LVSV left ventricular stroke volume, MPA main pulmonary artery, PC phase-contrast
  4. * p = 0.006 and p = 0.003 for differences between cine vs. Ao PC data and between cine vs. MPA PC data, respectively
  5. # p = 0.0004 and p < 0.0001 for differences between cine vs. Ao PC data and between cine vs. MPA PC data, respectively
  6. p = 0.07 and p = 0.63 for differences between cine vs. Ao PC data and between cine vs. MPA PC data, respectively