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Table 2 Flow dynamics in controls and BAV patients depending on BAV phenotype and dilatation morphotype

From: Aortic flow patterns and wall shear stress maps by 4D-flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the assessment of aortic dilatation in bicuspid aortic valve disease

   Total population BAV phenotype Ascending aorta morphotype
(only BAV)
Plane Measurements CONTROLS
(n = 20)
BAV
(n = 101)
p RL-BAV
(n = 78)
RN-BAV
(n = 23)
p Non-dilated
(n = 24)
Root
(n = 11)
Ascending
(n = 66)
p
Prox Peak velocity magnitude (cm/s) 111.7 ± 21.9 133.9 ± 28.3 0.004 128.5 ± 27.7 152.4 ± 22.2 0.001 122.6 ± 26.8 134.0 ± 23.9 138.0 ± 28.8 0.073
Peak TP velocity (cm/s) 97.3 ± 19 113.0 ± 23.8 0.020 111.2 ± 24.4 119.3 ± 21.2 0.112 106.8 ± 26.1 113.4 ± 22.0 115.2 ± 23.2 0.343
Jet angle (°) 24.3 ± 6.2 25.7 ± 12.1 0.666 23.3 ± 11.3 33.8 ± 11.8 < 0.0001 21.1 ± 14.0 24.2 ± 13.8 27.7 ± 10.8 0.042
Normalized displacement 0.04 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.07 < 0.001 0.15 ± 0.06 0.12 ± 0.06 0.045 0.10 ± 0.06 0.12 ± 0.05 0.16 ± 0.05 < 0.0001
IRF (cm2/s) −22.9 ± 65.9 139.1 ± 143.5 < 0.001 123.0 ± 128.4 193.4 ± 178.3 0.024 54.2 ± 124.3 162.3 ± 162.4 166.1 ± 136.5 0.001
WSSmag,avg (N/m2) 0.52 ± 0.09 0.56 ± 0.16 0.764 0.55 ± 0.15 0.57 ± 0.17 0.789 0.53 ± 0.14 0.55 ± 0.18 0.56 ± 0.15 0.608
WSSax,avg (N/m2) 0.41 ± 0.11 0.18 ± 0.12 < 0.001 0.19 ± 0.11 0.13 ± 0.09 0.046 0.26 ± 0.14 0.21 ± 0.11 0.14 ± 0.08 0.001
WSScirc,avg (N/m2) −0.03 ± 0.11 0.30 ± 0.20 < 0.001 0.29 ± 0.18 0.31 ± 0.35 0.590 0.18 ± 0.22 0.32 ± 0.20 0.33 ± 0.18 0.007
Mid Peak velocity magnitude (cm/s) 93.1 ± 24.3 118.8 ± 31.1 0.002 116.8 ± 32.3 125.8 ± 26.0 0.232 110.4 ± 22.7 114.5 ± 30.1 122.6 ± 33.5 0.282
Peak TP velocity (cm/s) 89.7 ± 24.3 100.7 ± 27.7 0.060 101.0 ± 30.3 99.5 ± 16.5 0.833 99.0 ± 22.7 95.8 ± 22.8 102.0 ± 30.1 0.877
Jet angle (°) 10.2 ± 5.9 28.7 ± 11.4 < 0.001 28.3 ± 12.0 30.1 ± 8.8 0.384 23.0 ± 10.6 25.4 ± 10.3 31.4 ± 11.0 0.001
Normalized displacement 0.03 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.06 < 0.001 0.09 ± 0.06 0.09 ± 0.04 0.639 0.07 ± 0.06 0.06 ± 0.04 0.11 ± 0.06 0.001
IRF (cm2/s) 35.1 ± 50.7 199.6 ± 190.3 < 0.001 186.2 ± 177.4 245.0 ± 227.4 0.046 101.1 ± 94.4 190.8 ± 200.2 236.9 ± 203.5 0.003
WSSmag,avg (N/m2) 0.54 ± 0.15 0.58 ± 0.21 0.516 0.57 ± 0.21 0.59 ± 0.22 0.907 0.55 ± 0.16 0.56 ± 0.21 0.59 ± 0.23 0.888
WSSax,avg (N/m2) 0.46 ± 0.14 0.29 ± 0.14 < 0.001 0.30 ± 0.13 0.23 ± 0.11 0.019 0.37 ± 0.17 0.30 ± 0.12 0.25 ± 0.10 0.010
WSScirc,avg (N/m2) 0.06 ± 0.07 0.29 ± 0.22 < 0.001 0.27 ± 0.20 0.34 ± 0.26 0.038 0.17 ± 0.17 0.28 ± 0.24 0.33 ± 0.21 0.004
SFRR (%) 3.99 ± 3.74 20.9 ± 13.5 < 0.001 21.4 ± 14.6 19.2 ± 8.7 0.777 12.3 ± 12.7 15.0 ± 11.7 25.0 ± 12.3 < 0.0001
Dist Peak velocity magnitude (cm/s) 96.3 ± 21.6 106.1 ± 30.0 0.195 105.0 ± 30.2 109.8 ± 29.4 0.439 105.7 ± 20.4 107.5 ± 30.7 106.0 ± 33.0 0.991
Peak TP velocity (cm/s) 87.4 ± 18.1 85.6 ± 23.6 0.886 86.7 ± 23.3 81.8 ± 24.7 0.388 91.1 ± 19.0 88.3 ± 22.4 83.1 ± 25.1 0.374
Jet angle (°) 23.0 ± 9.0 24.0 ± 10.6 0.690 25.1 ± 10.8 20.4 ± 9.5 0.138 19.5 ± 6.6 24.1 ± 9.1 25.6 ± 11.6 0.051
Normalized displacement 0.03 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.04 0.027 0.06 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.03 0.749 0.05 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.05 0.06 ± 0.04 0.813
IRF (cm2/s) 36.6 ± 35.3 120.9 ± 140.0 0.013 96.2 ± 117.8 204.7 ± 176.1 0.002 60.7 ± 70.8 106.1 ± 178.3 145.2 ± 146.7 0.005
WSSmag,avg (N/m2) 0.58 ± 0.13 0.50 ± 0.18 0.053 0.48 ± 0.16 0.53 ± 0.20 0.333 0.48 ± 0.15 0.53 ± 0.18 0.49 ± 0.18 0.767
WSSax,avg (N/m2) 0.36 ± 0.13 0.24 ± 0.12 0.001 0.25 ± 0.12 0.22 ± 0.10 0.356 0.28 ± 0.16 0.27 ± 0.11 0.22 ± 0.09 0.082
WSScirc,avg (N/m2) 0.07 ± 0.05 0.22 ± 0.19 < 0.001 0.19 ± 0.17 0.29 ± 0.22 0.046 0.13 ± 0.13 0.19 ± 0.24 0.25 ± 0.19 0.020
SFRR (%) 2.63 ± 3.47 10.9 ± 9.0 < 0.001 11.5 ± 9.6 9.1 ± 5.8 0.469 9.3 ± 11.6 8.3 ± 5.5 11.9 ± 8.3 0.026
  1. Values are mean ± SD
  2. TP through-plane, BAV bicuspid aortic valve, RL right-left, RN right-non coronary, IRF in-plane rotational flow, WSS wall shear stress, WSSmag, avg. contour-averaged WSS magnitude, WSSax, avg. contour-averaged axial WSS, WSScirc, avg. contour-averaged circumferential WSS, SFRR systolic flow reversal ratio