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Table 2 Parameters of CMR functional cardiac session

From: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of acute cardiovascular effects of voluntary apnoea in elite divers

CMR functional cardiac session Baseline ±SD before apnoea Begin of apnoea ±SD apnoeaearly End of apnoea ±SD apnoealate Mean of difference at beginning vs. end of apnoea SD of differences 95% confidence interval p-value
HR [bpm] 67.9 ± 17.0 75.5 ± 23.3 61.1 ± 11.8 −14.8 24.4 −27.8 to −1.8 0.0282
LVEDV [ml] 133.4 ± 37.9 122.9 ± 24.2 176.9 ± 26.4 53.4 28.2 38.3 to 68.4 < 0.001
LVESV [ml] 48.0 ± 18.6 47.3 ± 16.8 75.9 ± 16.3 27.4 14.5 19.7 to 35.1 < 0.001
LVEF [%] 64.3 ± 9.2 61.8 ± 9.4 56.8 ± 8.2 −4.2 7.5 −8.2 to −0.2 0.0397
LVSV [ml] 86.4 ± 26.3 75.6 ± 16.9 95.1 ± 32.6 19.5 34.1 2.0 to 37.1 0.0014
LVCO [l/min] 5.7 ± 2.1 5.5 ± 1.6 6.1 ± 1.7 0.6 1.0 0.1 to 1.2 0.021
FS [%]
 apical 43.8 ± 5.9 41.5 ± 7.4 27.9 ± 7.2 −13.7 5.8 −16.7 to − 10.7 < 0.0001
 midventricular 33.9 ± 7.1 30.7 ± 9.0 21.6 ± 4.4 −8.3 7.6 −12.4 to −4.3 0.0005
 basal 30.1 ± 5.4 26.7 ± 7.1 22.6 ± 5.5 −3.2 6.0 −6.7 to 0.2 0.0646
 mean 35.9 ± 4.8 33.0 ± 6.0 23.8 ± 4.4 −8.6 4.4 −10.9 to −6.2 <.0001
  1. HR heart rate, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic volume, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVSV left ventricular stroke volume, LVCO left ventricular cardiac output, FS fractional shortening, SD standard deviation; p-values for begin apnoea vs. end of apnoea