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Table 3 Univariate analysis of primary and secondary outcomes

From: Prognostic value of myocardial strain and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with moderate to severely reduced ejection fraction

  Primary outcome Secondary outcome
HR 95% CI P value HR 95% CI P value
Age (years) 0.993 0.973–1.013 0.487 0.991 0.970–1.011 0.373
Male gender 1.350 0.693–2.631 0.378 0.726 0.388–1.361 0.318
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 0.971 0.945–0.997 0.028 0.959 0.931–0.986 0.004
Hypertension 1.257 0.663–2.384 0.483 0.896 0.449–1.789 0.756
Diabetes mellitus 1.417 0.712–2.818 0.321 1.387 0.679–2.833 0.369
Dyslipidemia 1.521 0.469–4.936 0.485 0.945 0.228–3.917 0.938
Current smoker 0.978 0.474–2.017 0.951 0.853 0.403–1.807 0.678
Chronic kidney diseasea 1.660 0.813–3.389 0.164 1.709 0.837–3.492 0.141
Previous CVA 3.501 1.079–11.362 0.037 2.265 0.545–9.418 0.261
Body mass index, kg/m2 0.960 0.888–1.037 0.298 0.936 0.858–1.021 0.134
ECG at baseline       
 Heart rate (bpm) 1.000 0.984–1.015 0.972 1.013 0.997–1.029 0.109
 Left bundle-branch block 1.122 0.519–2.426 0.770 1.580 0.774–3.224 0.209
 QRS duration (ms) 1.005 0.995–1.015 0.353 1.003 0.993–1.013 0.598
Laboratory data       
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 2.249 0.784–6.455 0.132 0.950 0.271–3.334 0.950
 Na (mmol/l) 0.810 0.751–0.875 < 0.001 0.860 0.794–0.931 < 0.001
 ln(NT-proBNP) (pg/ml) 1.376 1.083–1.748 0.009 1.519 1.190–1.939 0.001
Cardiac medications       
 Beta-blockers 1.148 0.564–2.334 0.704 0.767 0.396–1.486 0.432
 ACE-inhibitors/ARB 1.492 0.531–4.192 0.447 2.171 0.669–7.050 0.197
 Spironolactone 1.100 0.588–2.056 0.766 1.380 0.724–2.632 0.328
 Diuretics 0.921 0.463–1.832 0.814 1.732 0.767–3.914 0.187
 Digoxin 1.658 0.847–3.242 0.140 1.662 0.847–3.258 0.140
LV EF (%) 1.006 0.969–1.044 0.759 0.970 0.933–1.009 0.132
LV EDV (ml) 1.003 1.000–1.006 0.093 1.003 1.000–1.006 0.090
LV ESV (ml) 1.003 0.999–1.006 0.108 1.004 1.000–1.007 0.041
Cardiac output (L/min) 1.092 0.908–1.314 0.349 0.961 0.784–1.177 0.699
Cardiac index (L/min/m2) 1.228 0.868–1.738 0.245 1.024 0.708–1.481 0.901
RV EF (%) 0.984 0.964–1.005 0.124 0.976 0.955–0.998 0.033
RV EDV (ml) 1.005 1.000–1.009 0.041 1.004 0.999–1.009 0.080
RV ESV (ml) 1.005 1.000–1.009 0.049 1.005 1.000–1.010 0.045
RV stroke volume (ml) 1.007 0.991–1.024 0.376 0.995 0.977–1.012 0.556
RV cardiac output (L/min) 1.122 0.894–1.407 0.320 0.962 0.759–1.220 0.751
Presence of LGE 2.277 1.221–4.246 0.010 2.023 1.066–3.839 0.031
Myocardial mass (g) 0.997 0.990–1.005 0.510 0.987 0.978–0.997 0.008
Quantitative LGE mass (g) 1.014 0.998–1.031 0.086 1.009 0.990–1.028 0.370
LGE mass/LV myocardial mass (%) 1.024 0.998–1.051 0.068 1.018 0.989–1.047 0.232
Global radial strain (%) 0.974 0.921–1.030 0.363 0.955 0.901–1.013 0.129
Global circumferential strain (%) 1.030 0.934–1.136 0.554 1.062 0.963–1.172 0.229
Global longitudinal strain (%) 1.048 0.945–1.163 0.375 1.066 0.955–1.191 0.254
  1. aChronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, calculated using the 4-component MDRD study equation
  2. Abbreviations: ACE angiotensin-converting-enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blockers, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, CI confidence interval, CVA cerebrovascular accident, ECG, electrocardiography, EDV end-diastolic volume, EF, ejection fraction, ESV, end-systolic volume, HR, hazard ratio, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, LV, left ventricle, RV, right ventricle