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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics according to DM state (n = 1476)

From: Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance associate with left ventricular shape and torsion by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic individuals from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

  DM state*
  NFG IFG Untreated DM Treated DM
Variable (n = 1004) (n = 262) (n = 47) (n = 163)
Age, year 65 (56 to 72) 67 (61 to 72)† 66 (58 to 72) 68 (64 to 75)†
Male sex, %§ 509 (50.7) 158 (60.3) 35 (74.5) 90 (55.2)
Ethnic, n (%)§
 Caucasian 336 (33) 65 (25) 12 (26) 24 (15)
 Black 124 (12) 51 (19) 7 (15) 26 (16)
 Hispanic 271 (27) 66 (25) 16 (34) 56 (34)
 Chinese 273 (27) 80 (31) 12 (26) 57 (35)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never 513 (51) 142 (54) 22 (47) 88 (54)
 Former 376 (38) 87 (33) 20 (43) 54 (33)
 Current 109 (11) 32 (12) 5 (11) 20 (12)
Alcohol status, n (%)§
 Never 195 (20) 47 (18) 8 (17) 44 (27)
 Former 240 (24) 61 (23) 9 (20) 56 (35)
 Current 558 (56) 152 (58) 29 (63) 61 (38)
Body mass index, kg/m2 27 (24 to 30) 29 (26 to 32)† 28 (25 to 32) 29 (26 to 32)†
Systolic BP, mmHg 124 (111 to 139) 131 (118 to 145)† 125 (115 to 145) 132 (120 to 146)†
Diastolic BP, mmHg 72 (65 to 78) 74 (67 to 82)† 73 (68 to 85) 70 (64 to 77)‡
Resting heart rate, bpm 60 (55 to 67) 64 (58 to 71)† 66 (60 to 71)† 66 (58 to 73)†
Hypertension, n (%)§ 417 (42) 145 (55) 23 (49) 120 (74)
Current smoker, n (%) 109 (11) 32 (12) 5 (11) 20 (12)
Total-cholesterol, mg/dl 193 (172 to 215) 195 (170 to 220) 200 (170 to 218) 184 (161 to 205)
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 50 (42 to 60) 45 (38 to 53)† 42 (33 to 54)† 44 (38 to 54)†
Triglyceride, mg/dl 104 (74 to 150) 125 (86 to 186)† 128 (79 to 233) 128 (83 to 202)†
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%)§ 160 (16) 53 (20) 12 (26) 53 (33)
Anti-hypertensive medication, n (%)§ 337 (34) 128 (49) 16 (35) 122 (75)
eGFR, mL/min 76 (66 to 87) 76 (64 to 88) 83 (66 to 97) 77 (63 to 91)
Walking, MET-min/week 945 (360 to 1920) 788 (315 to 1770) 1245 (315 to 1995) 2243 (735 to 3750)
  1. Values are median (interquartile range). BP, blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; NFG, normal fasting glucose
  3. *DM was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or use of hypoglycemic medication or insulin; IFG was defined as fasting glucose levels between 100 mg/dl and 125 mg/dl; all other participants were defined as having NFG
  4. p < 0.0125 vs. NFG in in Wilcoxon test, ‡p < 0.0125 vs. untreated DM in Wilcoxon test. §p < 0.05 in chi-square