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Table 2 Echocardiographic and CMR parameters of HFpEF patients and age- and sex-matched controls

From: Associations and prognostic significance of diffuse myocardial fibrosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

  HFpEF (n = 118) Healthy Controls (n = 26) P
Echocardiography
 LV ejection fraction (%) 64 ± 7 64 ± 5 0.93
 Transmitral peak E velocity max (m/s) 91 ± 29 55 ± 9 < 0.001
 Transmitral E deceleration time (ms) 160 ± 62 197 ± 35 0.004
 E/e’ septal ratio 18.1 ± 7.3 9.4 ± 1.7 < 0.001
 RV/RA gradient (mmHg) 32 ± 11 19 ± 5 < 0.001
 RA volume index (ml/m2) 35 ± 20 18 ± 5 < 0.001
 RV fractional area change (%) 41 ± 9 47 ± 8 0.008
 RV FAC ≤ 35% (n, %) 32 (27) 0 (0) < 0.001
 TAPSE (mm) 19 ± 5 24 ± 4 < 0.001
 TAPSE≤16 mm (n, %) 47 (40) 1 (4) < 0.001
Cardiac MR
 LVM index (g/m2) 68 ± 15 58 ± 12 0.003
 LV EDV index (ml/m2) 73 ± 18 63 ± 11 0.006
 LVEF (%) 63 ± 8 67 ± 5 0.024
 RV EDV index (ml/m2) 82 ± 28 67 ± 11 0.005
 RVEF (%) 57 ± 9 60 ± 6 0.052
 RVEF≤45% (n, %) 16 (14) 2 (8) 0.41
 LV mass/volume ratio 0.96 ± 0.20 0.94 ± 0.19 0.71
 LA volume index (ml) 66 ± 29 32 ± 10 < 0.001
 Myocardium native T1 time (ms) 1109 ± 82 1144 ± 47 0.038
 Myocardium post contrast T1 time (ms) 353 ± 56 381 ± 64 0,028
 ECV (%) 32.9 ± 4.8 28.2 ± 2.4 < 0.001
 Lambda coefficient 0.52 ± 0.08 0.49 ± 0.05 0.051
 ECV ≥ 33% (n, %) 49 (42) 0 (0) < 0.001
 Late gadolinium enhancement (n, %) 26 (22) 0 (0) 0.022
  1. Values are mean ± SD. LA left atrium, LV left ventricle, RV right ventricle, RA right atrium, BMI body mass index
  2. TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, LVM left ventricular mass, EF ejection fraction, EDV end-diastolic volume, ECV extracellular volume