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Fig. 1 | Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

Fig. 1

From: Feasibility of 3D black-blood variable refocusing angle fast spin echo cardiovascular magnetic resonance for visualization of the whole heart and great vessels in congenital heart disease

Fig. 1

Pulse sequence diagram of 3D fast spin echo (FSE) sequence, using electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggering and respiratory navigator (NAV) for motion compensation (a). The slab-selective 90 excitation pulse is followed by a series of non-selective refocusing pulses, modulated to generate a constant transverse magnetisation for vessel wall tissue (T1 = 880 ms, T2 = 40 ms) (b). Eight startup echoes are used to discard varying signal early in the echo train, while allowing signal from flowing blood to de-phase (blood v = 0 mm/s versus v = 50 mm/s) (c). During the startup echoes gradients are only performed in the readout direction leading to flow-induced dephasing primarily along this direction. A centric k-space view ordering scheme is used, whereby the centre of k-space (k0) is acquired after the startup echoes at the 9th echo (dashed line in (b) and (c). A longer echo spacing (ESP1) was used between the excitation pulse and first echo compared to subsequent echoes (ESP2) to account for the longer duration of the slab-selective excitation pulse

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