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Table 1 Characteristics of the study group

From: Stress increases intracardiac 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance -derived energetics and vorticity and relates to VO2max in Fontan patients

  Rest Dobutamine stress Difference Difference (%) P-value
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Stress-Rest
Mean ± SD or Median [IQR]
(Stress-rest)/rest x 100%
Mean ± SD or Median [IQR]
 
Characteristics of the study group that underwent the whole protocol (n = 10)
Age (years) 16.5 ± 3.8 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Male (%) 4/10 (40) n/a n/a n/a n/a
VO2 maxa 30.2 ± 8.6 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Oxygen saturationa 93.8 ± 4.4b 88.7 ± 4.8b −4.3 ± 3.3 − 5 ± 4 0.008
HR (bpm) 83.4 ± 18.9 110.9 ± 20.0 27.5 ± 8.2 35 ± 12 < 0.001
EDV (mL) 164.4 ± 43.9 156.8 ± 46.0 −7.6 ± 13.9 −5 ± 8 0.12
ESV (mL) 83.6 ± 23.7 64.8 ± 20.9 −21.7 [−25.6 to −14.4] −26 [−30 to −19] < 0.001
SV (mL) 80.8 ± 29.4 92.0 ± 33.9 11.1 ± 9.2 14 ± 10 0.004
EF (%) 49.1 ± 8.5 58.6 ± 8.1 9.5 ± 3.2 20 ± 8 < 0.001
CO (L/min) 6.4 ± 1.3 9.7 ± 2.2 3.3 ± 1.3 52 ± 17 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 121.2 ± 15.2 150.6 ± 19.3 29.4 ± 12.1 25 ± 11 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 62.7 ± 10.0 70.3 ± 6.0 7.6 ± 9.5 14 ± 19 0.03
Sphericity index systole 1.1 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0.2 2[−8 to 13] 0.44
Sphericity index diastole 1.0 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.2 0.05 ± 0.2 2 [−5 tot 9] 0.41
  1. aduring cardiopulmonary exercise testing
  2. boxygen saturation was missing for one patient
  3. HR heart rate, EDV end diastolic volume, ESV end systolic volume, SV stroke volume, CO cardiac output, EF ejection fraction, VO2 max maximal oxygen uptake IQR interquartile range