Skip to main content

Table 2 Quantitative analysis of energetics and vorticity at rest and stress

From: Stress increases intracardiac 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance -derived energetics and vorticity and relates to VO2max in Fontan patients

  Rest Dobutamine stress Difference(%) P-value
Mean ± SD or Median [IQR] Mean ± SD (Stress-rest)/rest x 100%
Mean ± SD or Median [IQR]
 
Non-normalized
 KEavg systole (mJ) 2.4 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.8 99 [72-195] < 0.001
 KEavg diastole (mJ) 1.4 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.7 61 ± 57 0.007
 KEavg cycle (mJ) 1.8 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.9 88 ± 52 < 0.001
 ELavg systole (mW) 1.2 [0.6-1.5] 3.1 ± 1.8 155 ± 61 0.005
 ELavg diastole (mW) 0.7 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.5 71 ± 66 0.007
 ELavg cycle (mW) 0.9 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.9 108 ± 49 < 0.001
 Vorticity_volavg systole (mL/s) 3592 ± 1148 4928 ± 1626 37 ± 17 < 0.001
 Vorticity_volavg diastole (mL/s) 3371 ± 770 4086 ± 1216 21 ± 25 0.02
 Vorticity_volavg cycle (mL/s) 3441 ± 899 4394 ± 1322 27 ± 19 0.002
Normalized by stroke volume
 KEavg cycle/SV (mJ/mL) 0.023 ± 0.005 0.037 ± 0.009 64 ± 40 < 0.001
 ELavg cycle/SV (mW/mL) 0.012 ± 0.004 0.021 ± 0.009 81 ± 36 < 0.001
 Vorticity_volavg cycle/SV (1/s) 44.1 ± 9.7 49.1 ± 11.1 11 ± 11 0.006
  1. SD standard deviation, KE kinetic energy, SV stroke volume, EL viscous energy loss IQR interquartile range