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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics

From: The amount of late gadolinium enhancement outperforms current guideline-recommended criteria in the identification of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at risk of sudden cardiac death

  Overall (n = 493) No endpoint (n = 470) Endpoint (n = 23) p-value
Age (years) 46 (33–60) 47 (33–59) 37 (27–61) 0.129
Male sex, n (%) 285 (57.8%) 274 (58.3%) 11 (47.8%) 0.321
Clinical history
 Family history of SCD, n (%) 62 (12.6%) 59 (12.6%) 3 (13.0%) 0.945
 Unexplained syncope, n (%) 64 (13.0%) 61 (13.0%) 3 (13.0%) 0.993
 Known AF, n (%) 84 (17.0%) 75 (16.0%) 9 (39.1%) 0.004
 Beta-blockers, n (%) 364 (73.8%) 346 (73.6%) 18 (78.3%) 0.621
 Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 52 (10.5%) 49 (10.4%) 3 (13.0%) 0.690
 ACEi/ARB, n (%) 169 (34.3%) 161 (34.3%) 8 (34.8%) 0.959
Holter monitoring data
 NSVT, n (%) 94 (19.1%) 86 (18.3%) 8 (34.8%) 0.049
Echocardiography data
 Left atrial size (mm) 43 (38–47) 42 (38–47) 47 (40–52) 0.025
 MWT (mm) 19 (16–23) 19 (16–23) 20 (17–26) 0.213
 MWT ≥ 30 mm, n (%) 35 (7.1%) 31 (6.6%) 4 (17.4%) 0.049
 LVOTO (mm Hg) 6 (3–50) 6 (3–50) 10 (3–48) 0.472
 LVOTO ≥ 30 mmHg, n (%) 174 (35.3%) 165 (35.1%) 9 (39.1%) 0.693
Exercise test dataa
 Abnormal BP response, n (%) 29 (10.2%) 28 (10.3%) 1 (9.1%) 0.897
CMR data
 LVEF (%) 67 (61–70) 67 (61–70) 66 (55–70) 0.259
 LVEF 35–50%, n (%) 16 (3.2%) 13 (2.8%) 3 (13.0%) 0.007
 Indexed EDV (mL/m2) 73 (62–83) 73 (62–83) 76 (63–88) 0.410
 Maximum LV thickness (mm) 21 (17–24) 21 (17–24) 23 (17–28) 0.677
 LV mass index (g/m2) 92 (75–114) 92 (75–114) 90 (77–120) 0.600
 LGE present, n (%) 391 (79.3%) 368 (78.3%) 23 (100%) 0.012
 LGE (g) 5 (0.6–14.2) 4.6 (0.6–13.8) 26.3 (12.7–36.8) <  0.001
 LGE (%) 2.9 (0.4–8.4) 2.7 (0.3–7.7) 12.0 (9.3–24.3) <  0.001
  1. Continuous variables presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (25th – 75th percentiles) where appropriate
  2. ACEi/ARB angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor / angiotensin II receptor blocker, AF atrial fibrillation, BP blood pressure, CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance, EDV end-diastolic volume, ESV end-systolic volume, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, LV left ventricle, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVOTO left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, MWT maximum LV wall thickness, NSVT non-sustained ventricular tachycardia
  3. afrom 283 exercise tests performed