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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to the primary combined endpoint

From: Prognostic value of mean velocity at the pulmonary artery estimated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance as a prognostic predictor in a cohort of patients with new-onset heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

 No event
n = 119
Primary combined endpoint
n = 91
Total sample
n = 210
p-value
Age (years)62.9 ± 12.165.5 ± 13.364.1 ± 12.60.146
Sex, male(n,%)84(70.6%)63(69.2%)147(70%)0.832
Arterial hypertension(n,%)76(63.9%)60(67.4%)136(65.4%)0.594
Diabetes mellitus(n,%)42(35.3%)44(49.4%)86(41.3%)0.040
Dyslipidemia(n,%)55(46.2%)47(52.8%)102(49%)0.347
Atrial fibrillation(n,%)32(26.9%)30(33.0%)62(29.5%)0.339
Left bundle branch block(n,%)31(26.5%)18(21.2%)49(24.3%)0.384
Implanted cardiodefibrillator,(n,%)20(17.1%)24(27.6%)44(21.6%)0.302
Cardiac resynchronization therapy, (n,%)8(6.7%)2(2.2%)10(4.8%)0.114
Previous coronary artery disease(n,%)25(21.0%)28(31.1%)53(25.4%)0.096
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)76.2 ± 16.169.2 ± 19.773.7 ± 17.90.012
Stage 3–4 Renal Failure (eGFR< 50 ml/min/1.73m2)9(8.5%)13(17.1%)22(12.1%)0.079
Sodium (mEq/L)138.1 ± 2.7137.3 ± 4.1137.7 ± 3.30.128
Nt-proBNP (pg/mL)5888 ± 47036043 ± 50415953 ± 48210.881
NYHA Functional Class   <  0.001
 I26(21.8%)7(7.7%)33(15.7%) 
 II73(61.3%)44(48.4%)117(55.7%) 
 III16(13.4%)31(34.1%)47(22.4%) 
 IV4(3.4%)9(9.9%)13(6.2%) 
Etiology of left ventricular dysfunction (n,%)   0.006
 Ischemic33 (27.7%)41 (46.1%)74(35.6%) 
 Non-ischemic86 (72.3%)48 (53.9%)134(64.4%) 
Idiopathic38(31.9%)18(20.2%)56(26.9%) 
Tachycardiomyopathy18(15.1%)7(7.7%)25(11.9%) 
LBBB10(8.4%)6(6.7%)16(7.7%) 
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy8(6.7%)6(6.6%)14(6.7%) 
Cardiotoxicity5(4.2%)3(3.3%)8(3.8%) 
Infiltrative cardiomyopathy2(1.7%)5(5.5%)7(3.3%) 
Non-compacted cardiomyopathy4(3.4%)2(2.2%)6(2.9%) 
Myocarditis1(1%)1(1%)2(1%) 
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%)27.9 ± 9.327.5 ± 9.927.8 ± 9.60.712
 LVEDD (mm)59.6 ± 7.658.9 ± 7.459.3 ± 7.50.632
 LVESD (mm)46.8 ± 8.948.4 ± 9.247.6 ± 9.10.292
 RV diameter (mm)23.3 ± 5.924.7 ± 8.223.9 ± 6.90.270
 SPAP (mmHg)a46.8 ± 14.749.7 ± 14.348.1 ± 14.50.244
 TAPSE (mm)17.2 ± 3.816.4 ± 5.916.9 ± 4.70.370
 TAPSE/SPAP ratio (mm/mmHg)a0.42 ± 0.190.35 ± 0.250.39 ± 0.220.129
CMR
 LVEF(%)27.5 ± 10.425.9 ± 9.526.9 ± 10.00.265
 LVEDVI (mL/m2)123.8 ± 39.1137.3 ± 47.3129.7 ± 43.20.025
 LVESVI (mL/m2)91.6 ± 37.7103.3 ± 46.196.7 ± 41.80.050
 RVEF(%)42.4 ± 15.544.0 ± 15.943.1 ± 15.70.450
 RVEDVI (mL/m2)76.3 ± 31.578.0 ± 33.977.1 ± 32.50.705
 RVESVI (mL/m2)45.6 ± 26.046.2 ± 30.345.9 ± 27.90.863
 LGE ischemic-pattern (n,%)27(26.5%)28(41.8%)55(32.5%)0.038
 LGE non-ischemic pattern (n,%)46(45.5%)22(33.3%)68(40.7%)0.166
MvPA (cm/s)10.9 ± 4.28.9 ± 3.210.1 ± 3.9<  0.001
PVR (WU)5.1 ± 2.45.8 ± 2.45.5 ± 2.4<  0.036
RV-PA unit parameters
Maximal PA-area (cm2)8.2 ± 2.49.1 ± 2.28.6 ± 2.40.013
Minimal PA-area (cm2)6.2 ± 2.47.1 ± 1.96.6 ± 2.10.010
PA pulsatility (%)0.35 ± 0.200.30 ± 0.140.33 ± 0.180.102
RV Emax/Ea0.89 ± 0.600.93 ± 0.620.91 ± 0.610.622
Right heart catheterisation parameters
 No event
n = 35
Primary combined endpoint
n = 20
Total sample
n = 55
p-value
MPAP (mmHg)29.5 ± 10.734.8 ± 9.731.4 ± 10.50.077
PCWP (mmHg)20.9 ± 8.220.6 ± 7.620.8 ± 7.80.904
RA pressure (mmHg)11.9 ± 6.912.8 ± 5.712.3 ± 6.40.694
Cardiac output(l/min)3.9 ± 1.53.1 ± 1.23.6 ± 1.40.090
PVR (WU)2.7 ± 1.94.6 ± 2.83.4 ± 2.40.013
TPG (mmHg)8.6 ± 6.013.8 ± 8.610.6 ± 7.40.013
Pulse pressure (mmHg)23.7 ± 10.028.3 ± 15.225.4 ± 12.20.206
PA Compliance (mm3/mmHg)1.87 ± 0.911.41 ± 0.841.67 ± 0.900.099
  1. a Measures available for 139 patients
  2. CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance. CRT cardiac resynchronization therapy. Ea effective elastance. Emax right ventricular maximal end-systolic elastance. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate. ICD implanted cardiodefibrillator. LGE late gadolinium enhancement. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction. LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. LVESD left ventricular end-systolic diameter. mPAP mean pulmonary artery pressure. mvPA mean velocity at the pulmonary artery. Nt-proBNP N-terminal brain natriuretic type peptide. NYHA New York Heart Association. sPAP systolic pulmonary artery pressure. PA pulmonary artery. PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. PVR pulmonary vascular resistance. RA right atrium. RVEF right ventricular ejection fraction. TAPSE tricuspid annular plane excursion. TPG transpulmonary gradient. WU wood units