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Table 2 The transfer times and resultant imaging heart rates in treadmill exercise CMR studies

From: Exercise cardiovascular magnetic resonance: development, current utility and future applications

Study Year Patient population N= Age Treadmill location Time (s) from exercise cessation to stress CMR: Peak HR Image acquisition HR CMR completion HR
Initiation Cine image completion Perfusion completion
Rerkpattanapipat [33] 2003 Patients referred for angiography 27 62 ± 11 Outside MR scanner NS 61 ± 24 N/A 130 ± 20 bpm 113 ± 16 bpm NS
Jekic [34] 2008 Healthy volunteers 20 39 ± 15 Corner of MR scanner room 30 ± 4 45 ± 4 57 ± 5a 98 ± 7% THR 84 ± 11% THR NS
Raman [31] 2010 Patients referred for MPS-SPECT 43 54 ± 12 Corner of MR scanner room 42 ± 5 68 ± 14 88 ± 8 93 ± 9% THR 74 ± 10% THR (cine) NS
Foster [27] 2012 Healthy volunteers 10 23–67 MR Scanner adjacent 24 ± 4 40 ± 7 50.5 ± 9 98 ± 8% THR 86 ± 9% THR 81 ± 9% THR
Thavendiranathan [42] 2014 Healthy volunteers 28 28 ± 11 MR Scanner adjacent 21 ± 2 41 ± 4 N/A 173 (146–196) bpm 148 ± 14 bpm NS
Sukpraphrute [43] 2015 Patients with known or suspected CAD 115 59 ± 13 Outside MR scanner room NS <60sb N/A 88 ± 12% THR NS NS
Lafountain [44] 2016 Athletes 10 26 ± 5 Scanner adjacent 36 ± 4c NS N/A > 95% THR 87% THR NS
Raman [45] 2016 Patients referred for MPS-SPECT 94 57 ± 11 Scanner adjacent 25 ± 13 46 ± 16 87 ± 36 97 ± 10% THR 83 ± 11% THR
(cine images)
76 ± 11% THR (perfusion)
NS
  1. aTime to peak perfusion
  2. b100% of patients completed diagnostic imaging in <60s, exact times not specified
  3. cCPET face mask removal increased transfer time
  4. Abbreviations: BPM beats per minute, CAD Coronary artery disease, CPET cardiopulmonary exercise test, HR Heart rate, MR magnetic resonance, N/A Not applicable, NS not specified, N Number of patients, MPS-SPECT Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy Single-photon emission computed tomography, THR Target heart rate