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Table 1 Cardiovascular disease risk factors at Exam 1, Exam 2 and Exam 3 (N = 349)

From: Association of antecedent cardiovascular risk factor levels and trajectories with cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived cardiac function and structure

  Exam 1 (1999–2001) Exam 2 (2006–2008) Exam 3 (2013–2014) p value*
Age (years) 42.5 (± 9.2) 49.5 (± 9.2) 56.5 (± 9.2)
Males 206 (59.0%) 206 (59.0%) 206 (59.0%)
Systolic BP (mmHg) 126.2 (± 16.1) 121.1 (± 16.2) 120.2 (± 16.1)  < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 81.6 (± 10.3) 76.6 (± 9.4) 75.2 (± 9.8)  < 0.001
Hypertension 101 (28.9%) 91 (26.1%) 115 (33.0%) 0.009
Weight (kg) 78.8 (± 13.6) 81.4 (± 15.2) 82.8 (± 16.2)  < 0.001
Height (cm) 171.9 (± 9.6) 172.5 (± 9.8) 171.9 (± 9.9)  < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.6 (± 3.8) 27.3 (± 4.2) 28.0 (± 4.7)  < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 90.6 (± 11.6) 93.8 (± 12.9) 98.4 (± 13.8)  < 0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 104.4 (± 7.1) 106.0 (± 7.9) 106.7 (± 8.8)  < 0.001
Waist-hip-ratio 0.87 (± 0.08) 0.88 (± 0.08) 0.92 (± 0.09)  < 0.001
Waist-height-ratio 0.53 (± 0.06) 0.54 (± 0.07) 0.57 (± 0.08)  < 0.001
Body surface area (m2) 1.91 (± 0.2) 1.95 (± 0.21) 1.95 (± 0.22)  < 0.001
Smoking status     
 Never-smoker 131 (37.5%) 131 (37.5%) 131 (37.5%)
 Ex-smoker 124 (35.5%) 140 (40.1%) 148 (42.4%) 0.001
 Current smoker 94 (26.9%) 78 (22.4%) 70 (20.1%) 0.001
Pack-years 10.8 (± 16.6) 12.3 (± 18.4) 13.1 (± 19.3)  < 0.001
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 19.2 (± 25.9) 18.8 (± 24.4) 19.1 (± 24.4) 0.734
Physically active 178 (51%) 205 (58.7%) 212 (60.7%) 0.002
Diabetes mellitus 4 (1.2%) 13 (3.7%) 28 (8.0%) 0.003
HbA1c (%) 5.48 (± 0.47) 5.48 (± 0.53) 5.56 (± 0.71)  < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 223.0 (± 40.6) 215.5 (± 37.4) 217.3 (± 36.4)  < 0.001
HDL-C (mg/dl) 56.2 (± 16.6) 54.1 (± 13.7) 62.5 (± 17.4)  < 0.001
LDL-C (mg/dl) 133.4 (± 39.1) 137.7 (± 33.7) 138.9 (± 32.9) 0.011
Antihypertensive medication 27 (7.7%) 53 (15.2%) 87 (24.9%) 0.034
Lipid-lowering medication 7 (2%) 23 (6.6%) 36 (10.3%) 0.003
Glucose-lowering medication 4 (1.2%) 9 (2.6%) 26 (7.5%) 0.003
Statin medication 7 (2%) 20 (5.7%) 36 (10.3%) 0.003
  1. Data are given as number (percentage) or mean (± standard deviation)
  2. BP blood pressure, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL-C high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. *One-way repeated measures ANOVA (continuous data) or Cochran's Q test (categorical data)