Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations of trajectory clusters for individual CVD risk factors (representing low, medium and high cumulative exposure to this risk factor over 14 years) with CMR derived measures of cardiac structure and function

From: Association of antecedent cardiovascular risk factor levels and trajectories with cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived cardiac function and structure

CV risk factor clustersa N Left ventricle Right ventricle Cardiac fat
End-diastolic volumeb Stroke volumeb Myocardial mass, diastolicb Early diastolic filling rate End-diastolic volumeb Stroke volumeb Epicardial fat, diastolic Pericardial fat, diastolic
349 β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Systolic BP (low) 101 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 (middle) 149 0.03 (− 4.13; 4.19) 1.00 (− 1.58; 3.57) 2.13 (− 1.32; 5.58) − 18.47 (− 48.99; 12.04) − 0.26 (− 4.9; 4.37) 0.97 (− 1.56; 3.5) − 0.40 (− 1.44; 0.65) − 2.68 (− 6.10; 0.75)
 (high) 99 3.23 (− 2.48; 8.93) 2.46(− 1.07; 6.00) 7.42** (2.69; 12.16) − 31.73 (− 73.58; 10.13) 1.73 (− 4.72; 8.19) 2.12 (− 1.40; 5.64) 0.02 (− 1.41; 1.45) 0.09 (− 4.58; 4.76)
Diastolic BP (low) 135 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 (middle) 142 − 2.76 (− 6.83; 1.3) − 1.42 (− 3.93; 1.08) − 1.29 (− 4.64; 2.05) − 24.42 (− 54.13; 5.29) − 2.01 (− 6.55; 2.52) − 1.06 (− 3.53; 1.40) 0.11 (− 0.90; 1.11) − 0.80 (− 4.13; 2.52)
 (high) 72 − 4.63 (− 10.32; 1.06) − 4.61* (− 8.12; − 1.10) − 2.53 (− 7.21; 2.16) − 54.49* (− 96.09; − 12.89) − 5.77 (− 12.05; 0.51) − 4.31* (− 7.72; − 0.90) 2.12** (0.71; 3.52) 5.02* (0.39; 9.65)
Waist circumference (low) 97 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 (middle) 180 − 4.31* (− 8.53; − 0.09) − 3.18* (− 5.79; − 0.56) 2.23 (− 1.18; 5.65) − 10.68 (− 41.49; 20.12) − 6.59** (− 11.39; − 1.79) − 3.05* (− 5.66; − 0.43) 2.21*** (1.11; 3.31) 6.42** (2.68; 10.16)
 (high) 72 − 8.9** (− 14.36; − 3.45) − 5.47** (− 8.86; − 2.09) 1.90 (− 2.51; 6.31) − 22.5(− 62.3; 17.29) − 10.62** (− 16.81; − 4.44) − 4.54** (− 7.9; − 1.18) 4.29*** (2.89; 5.70) 15.31*** (10.52; 20.11)
HbA1c (low) 159 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 (middle) 169 − 1.23 (− 4.53; 2.08) − 1.26 (− 3.30; 0.79) 0.35 (− 2.40; 3.09) − 0.21 (− 24.52; 24.11) − 0.25 (− 3.91; 3.41) − 0.49 (− 2.49; 1.51) − 0.45 (− 1.28; 0.39) − 0.99 (− 3.75; 1.76)
 (high) 21 6.24 (− 4.98; 17.47) 1.31 (− 5.65; 8.26) 7.92 (− 1.41; 17.25) 58.2 (− 24.41; 140.82) 7.05 (− 5.68; 19.78) 2.22 (− 4.73; 9.17) − 3.28* (− 6.13; − 0.42) − 8.44 (− 17.86; 0.97)
LDL-C (low) 103 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 (middle) 149 − 1.41 (− 5.06; 2.24) − 1.19 (− 3.43; 1.05) − 1.91 (− 4.91; 1.1) − 1.60 (− 28.45; 25.26) 1.15 (− 2.88; 5.18) 0.19 (− 2.00; 2.38) − 0.38 (− 1.32; 0.55) − 0.19 (− 3.28; 2.89)
 (high) 97 − 6.75** (− 10.96; − 2.54) − 5.16*** (− 7.74; − 2.58) − 2.77 (− 6.23; 0.69) − 33.48* (− 64.41; − 2.55) − 6.14* (− 10.82; − 1.46) − 3.54* (− 6.09; − 1.00) 0.05 (− 1.01; 1.12) 1.22 (− 2.29; 4.73)
  1. Data are β coefficients (with 95% confidence interval; indicating change in outcome variable between reference cluster and risk factor cluster) from multivariable linear regression models adjusted for the other risk factors respectively and for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, antihypertensive medication, lipid-lowering medication, glucose-lowering medication measured in Exam 3
  2. Ref. reference cluster
  3. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05
  4. aClusters were calculated by k-means clustering
  5. bIndexed to body surface area