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Table 4 Cross-sectional association of multivariable CVD risk factor clusters from Exam 3 (representing low, medium and high exposure to 5 CVD risk factors at this exam) with CMR derived measures of cardiac structure and function (Model A); and a combined model displaying the association of multivariable risk factor clusters of Exam 3 (contemporaneous with the CMR) AND of the longitudinal (over 14-years) multivariable risk factor clusters with MR derived measures of cardiac structure and function (Model B)

From: Association of antecedent cardiovascular risk factor levels and trajectories with cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived cardiac function and structure

CV Risk factors N Left ventricle Right ventricle Cardiac fat
End-diastolic volumeb Stroke volumeb Myocardial mass, diastolicb Early diastolic filling rate End-diastolic volumeb Stroke volumeb Epicardial fat, diastolic Pericardial fat, diastolic
349 β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Model A
 Cross-sectional multivariable risk factor clustersa
  Low 104 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Middle 164 − 2.77 (− 6.58; 1.05) − 2.19 (− 4.6; 0.23) − 0.50 (− 3.63; 2.63) − 23.07 (− 50.8; 4.65) − 2.23 (− 6.56; 2.09) − 1.56 (− 3.91; 0.79) − 0.35 (− 1.37; 0.67) 0.76 (− 2.78; 4.31)
  High 81 − 6.51** (− 11.09; − 1.94) − 5.01** (− 7.91; − 2.11) 1.64 (− 2.12; 5.4) − 51.44** (− 84.7; − 18.17) − 7.94** (− 13.16; − 2.71) − 4.04** (− 6.87; − 1.20) 0.20 (− 1.03; 1.42) 2.84 (− 1.39; 7.08)
Model B
 Cross-sectional multivariable risk factor clustersa
  Low 104 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Middle 164 − 0.05 (− 4.14; 4.03) − 0.30 (− 2.88; 2.28) − 1.04 (− 4.43; 2.35) − 6.46 (− 36.19; 23.28) 0.44 (− 4.2; 5.07) − 0.18 (− 2.7; 2.34) − 1.21* (− 2.30; − 0.12) − 1.74 (− 5.52; 2.05)
  High 81 − 2.95 (− 7.93; 2.02) − 2.52 (− 5.66; 0.61) 0.89 (− 3.23; 5.02) − 29.47 (− 65.65; 6.72) − 4.42 (− 10.08; 1.25) − 2.22 (− 5.3; 0.86) − 0.91 (− 2.22; 0.40) − 0.41 (− 4.97; 4.14)
 Longitudinal multivariable risk factor trajectory clustersc
  Low 83 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Middle 159 − 7.11** (− 11.83; − 2.39) − 4.91** (− 7.89; − 1.94) 0.29 (− 3.63; 4.21) − 37.71* (− 72.05; − 3.37) − 6.72* (− 12.09; − 1.35) − 3.56* (− 6.48; − 0.64) 2.20** (0.93; 3.46) 5.77* (1.39; 10.16)
  High 107 − 9.93** (− 15.83; − 4.04) − 7.00*** (− 10.73; − 3.28) 4.21 (− 0.68; 9.1) − 72.32** (− 115.22; − 29.42) − 10.76** (− 17.44; − 4.09) − 5.41** (− 9.04; − 1.77) 3.28*** (1.72; 4.84) 11.05*** (5.62; 16.47)
LR-testa   p = 0.003 p < 0.001 p = 0.068 p = 0.003 p = 0.006 p = 0.011 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
  1. Data are β-coefficients (with 95% confidence interval; indicating change in outcome variable between reference cluster and risk factor cluster) from multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, antihypertensive medication, lipid-lowering medication, glucose-lowering medication measured in Exam 3
  2. Ref. reference cluster
  3. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05
  4. aMultivariable clusters included the risk factors systolic BP, diastolic BP, WC, HbA1c and LDL-C and were calculated by k-means clustering
  5. bIndexed to body surface area
  6. cLikelihood-Ratio-test for adding the longitudinal multivariable risk factor trajectory clusters to the cross-sectional multivariable risk factor clusters (Model B)