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Table 2 CMR parameters of recovered COVID-19 patients and normal controls

From: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients: mid-term follow up by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Characteristic Total (n = 75) COVID-19 patients (n = 44) Healthy controls (n = 31) P-Value* Adjusted P-value** Adjusted P-value*** Adjusted P-value****
LGE-positvie (n = 13) LGE-negative (n = 31)
Age (years) Average ± SD 47.4 ± 12.3 53.2 ± 14.5 45.2 ± 12.3 47.1 ± 11.0 0.15 0.05 0.14 0.55
Gender, Male 38 (50.7%) 4 (30.8%) 15 (48.4%) 19 (61.3%) 0.17 0.34 0.06 0.31
BSA (kg/m2) 1.8 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.2 0.38 0.59 0.20 0.33
Heart rate (bpm) 66.4 ± 10.6 63.8 ± 6.6 67.2 ± 13.4 66.6 ± 8.8 0.61 0.33 0.43 0.81
LVEDV 129.1 ± 25.5 120.9 ± 26.8 130.9 ± 27.8 130.8 ± 22.7 0.45 0.24 0.25 0.99
LVESV 48.5 ± 12.6 42.8 ± 9.7 49.8 ± 13.3 49.7 ± 12.6 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.98
LVSV 80.6 ± 17.1 78.0 ± 21.0 81.1 ± 16.6 81.1 ± 17.1 0.84 0.58 0.60 0.98
LVEF 62.5 ± 5.7 64.3 ± 5.9 62.2 ± 4.4 62.0 ± 6.7 0.46 0.28 0.23 0.88
LVCO 5.3 ± 1.2 4.9 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.2 0.44 0.25 0.23 0.93
LVCI 3.0 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.6 0.54 0.27 0.50 0.59
LV mass 76.7 ± 15.1 72.5 ± 14.5 74.3 ± 15.4 80.7 ± 14.7 0.14 0.72 0.10 0.97
LVEDV/BSA 72.4 ± 11.7 69.3 ± 10.6 73.8 ± 12.7 72.4 ± 11.2 0.52 0.25 0.43 0.63
LVESV/BSA 27.1 ± 6.4 24.7 ± 5.1 27.8 ± 6.4 27.5 ± 6.8 0.31 0.14 0.19 0.85
LVSV/BSA 45.3 ± 7.9 44.6 ± 8.6 46.0 ± 7.8 44.8 7.9 0.81 0.60 0.93 0.57
LVCO/BSA 3.0 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.6 0.49 0.24 0.44 0.59
LV mass/BSA 42.9 ± 5.6 41.6 ± 5.6 41.8 ± 5.4 44.4 ± 5.7 0.13 0.91 0.13 0.07
RVEDV 128.8 ± 31.5 118.1 ± 32.8 129.6 ± 34.2 133.5 ± 27.9 0.34 0.31 0.14 0.54
RVESV 54.4 ± 18.3 47.3 ± 15.0 56.7 ± 21.3 55.0 ± 16.1 0.30 0.13 0.20 0.73
RVSV 74.5 ± 18.7 70.8 ± 22.6 72.1 ± 19.2 78.5 ± 16.1 0.30 0.84 0.22 0.18
RVEF 58.1 ± 7.7 59.5 ± 8.6 56.6 ± 8.3 59.1 ± 6.5 0.35 0.26 0.89 0.20
RVCO 4.9 ± 1.2 4.5 ± 1.3 4.8 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 1.0 0.16 0.46 0.08 0.18
RVCI 2.8 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.5 0.40 0.40 0.18 0.51
RVEDV/BSA 71.3 ± 13.8 67.6 ± 14.4 72.4 ± 15.2 71.81 ± 12.23 0.569 0.30 0.36 0.87
RVESV/BSA 30.4 ± 9.1 27.0 ± 7.0 31.8 ± 10.3 30.5 ± 8.4 0.30 0.12 0.25 0.61
RVSV/BSA 41.5 ± 9.0 40.5 ± 10.9 40.8 ± 9.5 42.6 ± 7.9 0.68 0.94 0.50 0.44
RVCO/BSA 2.7 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.5 0.32 0.50 0.15 0.33
Native T1(ms) 1286 ± 60 1253 ± 55   0.09    
3D-Strain  
LV peak GRS 42.6 ± 19.5 40.5 ± 18.7 46.3 ± 23.0 39.8 ± 15.8 0.39 0.37 0.91 0.19
LV peak GCS − 17.5 ± 6.5 − 15.1 ± 10.3 − 16.7 ± 6.9 − 19.4 ± 3.0 0.08 0.45 0.04 0.10
LV peak GLS − 12.7 ± 3.3 − 11.9 ± 3.9 − 12.7 ± 3.6 − 13.1 ± 2.8 0.58 0.47 0.30 0.68
RV peak GRS 31.6 ± 12.6 31.4 ± 14.5 28.8 ± 11.1 34.4 ± 10.4 0.16 0.49 0.42 0.06
RV peak GCS − 11.9 ± 4.2 − 9.4 ± 3.4 − 12.1 ± 4.0 − 12.9 ± 4.3 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.46
RV peak GLS − 11.3 ± 4.0 − 7.8 ± 4.0 − 12.9 ± 3.0 − 11.3 ± 3.9 0.00 0.003 0.00 0.08
  1. Boldface characters indicate p (adjusted p) < 0.05
  2. BSA body surface area, CI cardiac index, CO cardiac output, EDV end-diastolic volume, EF ejection fraction, ESV end-systolic volume, GCS global circumferential strain, GLS global longitudinal strain, GRS global radial strain, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, LV left ventricle, RV right ventricle, SV stroke volume
  3. *P-value is for patients with LGE-positive versus patients with LGE-negative versus normal controls
  4. **Adjusted P-value: Statistical difference between patients with and without LGE on CMR imagings
  5. ***P-value: Statistical difference between patients with LGE-positive on CMR imagings and normal controls
  6. ****P-value: Statistical difference between patients with LGE-negative on CMR imagings and normal controls