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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and CMR data from the studied cohorts

From: Multi-parametric assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy using late gadolinium enhancement, T1 mapping and strain-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance

  Healthy subjects (33 pts) Athletes (22 pts) HHD (228 pts) HCM (45 pts) Amyloidosis (41 pts) p values*
Age (years) 31.7 ± 10 37.1 ± 11 66.2 ± 11 56 ± 15 71.4 ± 11 < 0.001
Female sex 13 (39%) 7 (32%) 74 (32%) 17 (38%) 3 (7%) 0.01
Arterial hypertension 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 228 (100%) 30 (67%) 25 (61%) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 0 (0%) 1 (4%) 53 (19%) 8 (18%) 5 (12%) < 0.001
BMI (Kg/m2) 23.9 ± 5.6 22 ± 2.5 28.2 ± 4.8 27 ± 4.4 24.4 ± 2.5 < 0.001
BSA (m2) 1.8 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 2 ± 0.2 2 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 < 0.01
LVEDV (ml) 183.6 ± 46 206.2 ± 43 166.5 ± 41 171 ± 38 181.3 ± 42 0.001
LVEDV index (ml/m2) 89 ± 20 107.3 ± 16 82.3 ± 17 86 ± 17.1 94.1 ± 21 0.001
LVESV (ml) 60 ± 19 85.2 ± 28 66.4 ± 29 72.3 ± 54 85.6 ± 33 < 0.01
LVESV index (ml/m2) 32.4 ± 8 44 ± 11 32.5 ± 12 32.4 ± 11 44.2 ± 17 < 0.001
LV ejection fraction 59.2 ± 5 55 ± 7 55 ± 8.5 56 ± 10 50 ± 10 < 0.01
Stroke volume (ml) 109 ± 31 112 ± 24 91 ± 23 95 ± 29 91 ± 24 < 0.001
Stroke volume index (ml/m2) 51 ± 12 59 ± 11 45 ± 11 48 ± 12 47 ± 12 < 0.001
IVS (mm) 7.6 ± 1.7 9 ± 2 12 ± 1.8 17.4 ± 6 17.4 ± 3.3 < 0.001
Lateral wall (mm) 5.2 ± 1.5 6.8 ± 2.3 8 ± 2 8.7 ± 3 12.3 ± 3.5 < 0.001
LV mass (g) 108.2 ± 24 134.2 ± 30 130 ± 30 154 ± 50.6 184.1 ± 45 < 0.001
LV mass index (g/m2) 56.1 ± 11 69.5 ± 11 64.2 ± 13 76.8 ± 21 95 ± 21 < 0.001
MCF 1.07 ± 0.23 0.91 ± 0.21 0.75 ± 0.17 0.69 ± 0.21 0.55 ± 0.19 < 0.001
LV concentricity 0.69 ± 0.1 0.68 ± 0.12 0.84 ± 0.17 0.96 ± 0.25 1.14 ± 0.25 < 0.001
T1 (ms) 1052 ± 27 1041 ± 42 1054 ± 44 1079 ± 61 1175 ± 65 < 0.001
Atypical LGE present 0 (0%) 3 (14%) 81 (36%) 44 (98%) 37 (90%) < 0.001
Diffuse LGE present 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 25 (11%) 21 (47%) 37 (90%) < 0.01
Focal intramyocardial LGE 0 (0%) 2 (9%) 32 (14%) 21 (47%) 0 (0%) < 0.01
Focal epicardial LGE 0 (0%) 1 (5%) 24 (11%) 2 (5%) 0 (0%) < 0.05
Distribution of focal vs. diffuse LGE N.A 1.0 ± 0 1.2 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.5 2.0 ± 0 < 0.001
Atypical LGE score 1.00 ± 0 1.03 ± 0.09 1.06 ± 0.09 1.25 ± 0.19 1.75 ± 0.39 < 0.001
GLS(%) − 20.9 ± 1.2 − 20.2 ± 1.2 − 18.8 ± 2.1 − 14.7 ± 3.5 − 12.2 ± 3 < 0.001
GCS(%) − 20.2 ± 1.6 − 19.9 ± 1.3 − 17.8 ± 1.8 − 16.3 ± 2.2 − 14.1 ± 2.6 < 0.001
%normal myocardium 0.85 ± 0.06 0.83 ± 0.06 0.66 ± 0.15 0.48 ± 0.15 0.27 ± 0.18 < 0.001
  1. BMI body-mass-index, BSA body surface area, LV left ventricle, EDV end-diastolic-volume, ESV end-systolic-volume, IVS intraventricular septum, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, GLS global longitudinal strain, GCS global circumferential strain, MCF myocardial contraction fraction, N.A. not applicable
  2. LV concentricity was calculated as a ratio of LV mass divided by LVEDV
  3. *Statistical significance remained after adjustment for the co-variates “age” and “sex”