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Table 2 Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings of the included studies

From: Prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in recovered patients from COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (year) CMR abnormality, n (%) Fulfilled diagnostic criteria of myocarditis on CMRa (n) Cine abnormality (n) T1 mapping abnormality (n) T2w abnormality (n) T2 mapping abnormality (n) T2 segment T2 abnormality (T2w or T2 map) ECV abnormality (n) Myocardial LGE (n) Pericardial LGE (n) Total LGE LGE segment LGE pattern Increased T2 value without LGE (n) LGE without T2 elevation (n) Pericardial effusion (n)
Ng et al. (2020) 9 (66.7%) 4 NR 5 NA 5 Global 5 NR 3 NR 3 NR Non-ischemic (3)a 2 1 0
Huang et al. (2020) 15 (57.7%) 7 NR NR 14 NR NR 14 NR 8 0 8 Inferior or lateral at the mid and basal segments Focal linear subepicardial and patchy mesocardial 7 1 7
Rajpal et al. (2020) 13 (50%) 4 1 0 NA 4 Mid-inferoseptal (3) mid-anteroseptal (2), basal inferoseptal (1) 4 1 12 0 12 Septal (19), inferior or lateral (5) at the mid and basal segments Patchy (6), linear (3), epicardial (1), RV insertion (2) 0 8 2
Knight et al. (2020) 20 (69%) NR 2 NR NA 0 NR 0 NA 20 0 20 NR Non-ischemic (11), ischemic (5), dual (4) NR NR 2
Puntmann et al. (2020) 78 (78%) NR NR 73 NA 60 NR 60 NR 32 22 NR NR Nonischemic (20), ischemic (12), pericardial (22) NR NR 20
Eiros et al. (2020) 104 (75%) 51 7 58 6 6 NR NR 52 10 0 10 NR NR NR NR 42
Vago et al. (2020) 0 (0%) 0 0 0 0 0 NR 0 NA 0 0 0 NR NR 0 0 NR
Brito et al. (2020) 26 (54.2%) 0 1 9 0 0 NR 0 NA 1 19 NR Lateral Pericardial (19), myocardial (1) 0 1 28
Clark et al. (2021) 4 (6.8%) 2 0 NA NA 1 Mid septum NR NA 3 1 4 NR NR NA NA NA
Malek et al. (2021) 7 (26.9%) 0 2 0 3 1 NR 4 0 1 0 1 Inferolateral segment Mid wall 4 1 2
Li et al. (2021) 24 (60%) NR NA NA NR NA NR NA 24 1 0 1 Mid-inferior segment NR NR NR NA
Starekova et al. (2021) 4 (2.8%) 2 NA 2/141 2 1/102 Apical inferolateral, and basal inferior segment 2 NR 4 1 4 Apical inferolateral, and basal inferior segment Mid myocardial and subepicardial (1), epicardial (1), mid myocardial (2) 0 2 1
Wang et al. (2021) 13 (29.5%) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NR 13 0 13 Inferior wall and inferior-lateral wall of the basal segment Mid myocardium, subepicardium NA NA NA
Pan (2021) 15 (71.4%) NA 3 5 NR 10 NR 10 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NA
Zhou (2021) 1 (8.3%) 0 0 NR 0 NR NR 0 NR 1 0 1 Basal anterolateral segment Subepicardial 0 1 NA
Kotecha (2021) 80 (54.1%) 12 17 23/137 NR 12/137 NR 12/137 NR 70/144 0 70/144 NR Subepicardial (28), midwall (14), subendocardia and subepicardial (3), subendocardial and midwall (2) NA NA 8
  1. ECV extracellular volume, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, NA not available, NR not reported, RV right ventricular, T2w T2-weighted imaging
  2. aOne patient who showed ischemic LGE with a history of myocardial infarction was excluded