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Table 1 Baseline and CMR data: ‘controls vs HCM’; ‘No new onset AF vs new onset AF’

From: Incremental value of left atrial booster and reservoir strain in predicting atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

  Control subjects (n = 20) HCM population, n = 238 P value New onset AF (n = 33) No new onset AF (n = 205) P value
Baseline and clinical
Age at CMR scan 48 [37, 64] 54 [43, 63] 0.362 61 [55, 66] 53 [41, 61] 0.001*
Men, n, % 15, 75 184, 77 1 25, 76 159, 78 0.824
Body mass index 26.6 [23.4, 27.8] 27.5 [24.6, 30.3] 0.145 28.5 [25.7, 30.8] 27.2 [24.5, 30.7] 0.129
Body surface area 1.9 (0.2) 2.0 (0.3) 0.276 2.1 [1.8, 2.2] 2.0 [1.8, 2.2] 0.51
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128 (13.3) 131 (18.5) 0.558 130 (14.8) 131 (19.2) 0.968
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72 (8.0) 77 (10.3) 0.077 78 (9.7) 77 (10.4) 0.586
Hypertension, n, % 4, 20 99, 42 0.479 18, 55 81, 40 0.130
Mitral regurgitation class, %: no mitral regurgitation, 1, 2, 3, 4 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 71, 17, 7, 6, 0 73, 3, 15, 9, 0 71, 19, 5, 5, 0 0.014*
SCD score: ESC guidelines N/A 2.0 (1.6) 2.3 (1.8) 2.0 (1.4) 0.273
VT historical, n, % N/A 12, 5 5, 15 7, 3 0.015*
VT new onset, n, % N/A 26, 11 6, 18 20, 10 0.225
TIA historical, n, % N/A 6, 3 1, 3 5, 2 0.596
TIA new onset, n, % 0, 0 5, 2 2, 6 3, 1 0.143
Diabetes mellitus, n, % 0, 0 18, 8 2, 6 16, 8 1
Smoking history, n, % - 59, 25 10, 30 49, 24 0.516
LGE presence, n, % 0, 0 185,  77 30, 91 155, 76 0.056
LGE mass (g) 0, 0% 15.0 [8.0, 26.0] 14.0 [6.9, 29.0] 16.0 [8.0, 26.0] 0.687
LGE (%) 0, 0% 10.5 [5.6, 15.5] 10.0 [4.8, 14.6] 10.7 [5.7, 15.5] 0.601
Latest NYHA class, %: 1, 2, 3, 4 20, 0, 0, 0 65, 28, 7, 0 44, 50, 6, 0 69, 25, 7, 0 0.012*
Sarcomeric variant present, n, % N/A 78, 33 8, 24 70, 34 0.239
Medications
Beta-blockers, n, % 0, 0 107, 45  < 0.001* 19, 58 88, 43 0.190
Calcium channel blockers, n, % 0, 0 59, 25 0.021 12, 36 47, 23 0.136
ACE-I/ARB, n, % 2, 10 57, 24 0.213 11, 33 46, 22 0.194
Diuretics, n, % 0, 0 9, 4 0.754 1, 3 8, 4 1
Aspirin, n, % 1, 5 81, 34 0.009* 11, 33 70, 34 0.845
Warfarin or other anticoagulation, n, % 0, 0 21, 9 0.315 11, 33 10, 5  < 0.001*
CMR: left atrium
LA diameter (mm) 34.5 (4.3) 37.2 (5.7) 0.037 39.0 [34.0, 42.0] 37.0 [33.0, 40.0] 0.136
LAEDV index (mL/m2) 38.1 [35.9, 46.9] 43.8 [36.2, 51.1] 0.158 45.6 [39.4, 65.5] 43.5 [35.2, 50.7] 0.044
LAEDV (mL) 78.7 (20.4) 90.8 (31.7) 0.095 95.3 [77.7, 127.9] 84.5 [66.2, 105.7] 0.040
LAESV index (mL/m2) 17.3 (4.7) 23.6 (12.4) 0.025 31.5 (18.3) 22.3 (10.7)  < 0.001*
LAESV (mL) 33.5 (10.3) 46.9 (24.8) 0.017 62.9 (36.5) 44.28 (21.3)  < 0.001*
LA stroke volume (mL) 45.2 (12.9) 44.0 (15.2) 0.720 40.0 (16.9) 44.6 (14.9) 0.111
LA reservoir strain (%) 21.6 [19.9, 22.9] 19.9 [17.1, 22.2] 0.047 15.6 (5.4) 19.8 (4.3)  < 0.001*
LA conduit strain (%) 13.7 (3.3) 10.6 (4.4) 0.002* 8.6 (3.8) 10.9 (4.4) 0.004*
LA booster strain (%) 8.7 (1.8) 9.2 (3.1) 0.439 7.6 (3.3) 9.5 (3.0) 0.001*
LAEF (%) 57.2 [54.6, 61.5] 51.7 [44.8, 57.5] 0.001* 44.0 [26.7, 54.0] 52.5 [46.9, 58.0] 0.001*
CMR: left ventricle
LV maximal wall thickness (mm) 19.0 [16.0, 22.0] 21.0 [18.0, 23.0] 19.0 [16.0, 22.0] 0.068
LVOT max pressure gradient (mmHg) 5.2 [3.8, 7.6] 5.4 [4.0, 8.1] 5.2 [3.8, 7.4] 0.698
LVOT obstruction ≥ 30 mmHg, n, % 9, 4 0, 0 9, 4
LVEDV index (mL/m2) 80.8 [65.9, 93.5] 71.1 [62.0, 82.1] 0.025 66.0 [55.0, 75.0] 72.2 [63.5, 82.3] 0.024
LVESV index (mL/m2) 29.0 [21.4, 35.0] 21.3 [17.0, 27.0] 0.008 19.3 [15.8, 25.0] 21.7 [17.6, 27.0] 0.039
LV stroke volume index (mL/m2) 51.4 [47.4, 60.0] 49.8 [43.8, 54.9] 0.171 45.4 [39.0, 53.2] 50.1 [44.0, 55.4] 0.066
LV ejection fraction (%) 64.9 [59.5, 71.2] 69.6 [65.0, 74.3] 0.024 70.6 (7.2) 69.3 (6.9) 0.292
LV mass (grams) 107.4 [88.8, 122.9] 151.5 [127.3, 183.5]  < 0.001* 178.8 [139.7, 200.4] 150.3 [123.7, 176.7] 0.024
  1. Data are represented as mean ± standard deviation, or median [IQR]
  2. Hypothesis testing via Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U test, as appropriate
  3. ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, ESC European Society of Cardiology, LA left atria, LAEDV left atrial end diastolic volume, LAESV left atrial end systolic volume, LGE late gadolinium enhancement (5-SD), LGE % percentage of tissue enhanced by gadolinium, LV left ventricle, LVEDV left ventricular end diastolic volume, LVESV left ventricular end systolic volume, LVOT left ventricular outflow tract, LVOT obstruction, when pressure ≥ 30 mmHg, NYHA New York Heart Association, SCD sudden cardiac death, TIA transient ischemic attack, VT ventricular tachycardia
  4. *Indicates a significant difference. This significance level is P < 0.05 without Bonferroni correction for baseline clinical variables and medications, whereas with Bonferroni correction the significance values are P < 0.005 and P < 0.0071 for CMR: Left Atrium and CMR: Left Ventricle, respectively