Skip to main content

Table 3 Mitral valve apparatus measurements

From: Mitral valve prolapse morphofunctional features by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: more than just a valvular disease

  Controls [n = 44] MVP (all) [n = 80] MVP (no significant MR) [n = 34] “Borderline” MVP [n = 13]
MVP distance (mm) N/A 7 [5–9] 6 [4–8] 0.9 [0.5–1.7]
Mitral leaflets thickness
 Anterior leaflet (mm) 2 [2–2] 3 [2, 3]** 3 [2, 3]** 3 [3–5]**
 Posterior leaflet (mm) 1 [1, 2] 2 [2, 3]** 2 [2, 3]** 4 [3, 4]**
Mitral annulus diameter
 Diastole (cm/m2) 1.7 [1.5–1.9] 2.1 [1.9–2.4]** 1.9 [1.7–2.1]** 2.1 [1.9–2.4]*
 Systole (cm/m2) 1.9 [1.7–2.1] 2.4 [2.1–2.7]** 2.0 [1.9–2.2]** 1.9 [1.6–2.1]
 Lengthening (cm/m2) 0.2 [0–0.4] 0.2 [0.1–0.4] 0.3 [0.1–0.4] 0.4 [0.3–0.5]*
Mitral annulus disjunction
 Presence diastole, n (%) 1 (2) 14 (18)** 7 (21)** 2 (15)*
 Extent diastole (cm) 0.2 [0.2–0.2] 0.3 [0.2–0.3]* 0.3 [0.2–0.3]* 0.3 [0.2–0.3]
 Presence systole, n (%) 1 (2) 32 (40)** 15 (44)** 4 (31)**
 Extent systole (cm) 0.2 [0.2–0.2] 0.8 [0.6–1.0]** 0.7 [0.4–1]** 0.6 [0.2–0.6]
Mitral annulus angle (º) 4 [2–6] 7 [4–10]** 7 [3–11]* 3 [2–6]
Anterior annulus to external reference point
 Diastole (cm/m2) 6.6 [6.2–7.2] 7.1 [6.6–7.8]* 7.2 [6.5–8.0]* 7.3 [7.2–7.7]*
 Systole (cm/m2) 6.0 [5.6–6.7] 6.5 [5.9–7.1]* 6.5 [5.7–7.4] 6.9 [6.5–6.9]*
 Shortening (cm/m2) 0.6 [0.5–0.8] 0.6 [0.5–0.8] 0.6 [0.5–0.8] 0.8 [0.6–0.9]
Posterior annulus to external reference point
 Diastole (cm/m2) 6.4 [6.0–6.8] 6.8 [6.2–7.4]* 6.8 [6.2–7.3]* 7.2 [6.9–7.3]**
 Systole (cm/m2) 5.6 [5.3–6.2] 6.0 [5.4–6.5] 6.0 [5.3–6.5] 6.5 [6.1–6.6]*
 Shortening (cm/m2) 0.7 [0.5–0.9] 1.0 [0.7–1.0]* 0.9 [0.7–1.0]* 0.8 [0.6–1.1]
PM to anterior annulus distance
 Diastole (cm/m2) 3.8 [3.7–4.1] 4.4 [4.1–4.8]** 4.4 [4.1–4.7]** 4.4 [3.9–4.4]*
 Systole (cm/m2) 3.4 [3.2–3.8] 3.6 [3.3–4.0] 3.5 [3.3–3.9] 3.6 [3.4–3.9]
 Shortening (cm/m2) 0.5 [0.3–0.6] 0.8 [0.6–1.0]** 0.8 [0.6–0.9]** 0.7 [0.4–0.8]
PM to posterior annulus distance
 Diastole (cm/m2) 3.1 [2.9–3.3] 3.4 [3.1–3.8]** 3.3 [3.1–3.6]* 3.4 [2.8–3.5]
 Systole (cm/m2) 2.6 [2.4–2.8] 2.7 [2.4–2.9] 2.6 [2.4–2.8] 2.8 [2.5–3.1]
 Shortening (cm/m2) 0.5 [0.3–0.6] 0.8 [0.6–1.0]** 0.7 [0.5–0.9]** 0.4 [0.4–0.8]
PM length
 Diastole (cm/m2) 1.6 [1.4–1.7] 1.7 [1.4–1.9] 1.7 [1.4–1.8] 1.6 [1.4–1.9]
 Systole (cm/m2) 1.2 [1.0–1.4] 1.5 [1.2–1.7]** 1.4 [1.2–1.6]* 1.3 [1.2–1.5]
 Shortening (cm/m2) 0.4 [0.2–0.5] 0.2 [0.1–0.4]* 0.3 [0.1–0.4]* 0.3 [0.3–0.4]
Distance from papillary muscle tip to leaflet
 Diastole (cm/m2) 1.1 [0.9–1.2] 1.1 [1.0–1.3] 1.1 [0.9–1.2] 1.1 [1.1–1.3]*
 Systole (cm/m2) 1.1 [0.9–1.2] 1.2 [1.1–1.4]* 1.2 [1.0–1.4] 1.2 [1.1–1.4]*
  1. Values expressed as medians [interquartile range]. *P Value < 0.05 versus controls. **P Value < 0.01 versus controls. MR mitral regurgitation, MVP mitral valve prolapse; N/A not applicable, PM papillary muscle