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Table 2 Biventricular and left atrial reference values for healthy males (n = 1126) and females (n = 2080) indexed to body surface area (BSA)

From: Normal sex and age-specific parameters in a multi-ethnic population: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds cohort

CMR variables Male Female
Mean ± SD 95% CI* Normal range Mean ± SD 95% CI* Normal range
  Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
LVEF (%) 62 ± 6 62 62 50–73 64 ± 6 64 65 53–76
LVSV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 46 ± 8 45 46 29–62 42 ± 7 42 42 28–56
LVEDV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 74 ± 13 73 75 48–100 65 ± 11 65 66 45–86
LVESV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 28 ± 7 28 29 14–43 23 ± 6 23 24 12–35
LV mass, indexed to BSA (g/m2) 61 ± 10 60 61 42–80 48 ± 8 47 48 33–62
LV mass to volume ratio (g/ml) 0.84 ± 0.16 0.83 0.848 0.53–1.15 0.74 ± 0.13 0.732 0.743 0.48–1.00
RVEF (%) 53 ± 6 53 53 41–65 58 ± 6 58 58 46–70
RVSV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 45 ± 8 45 46 29–62 42 ± 7 41 42 28–56
RVEDV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 86 ± 16 85 87 54–119 72 ± 13 72 73 47–8
RVESV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 41 ± 11 40 42 20–62 31 ± 8 30 31 14–47
Min. LA volume, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 21 ± 7 21 21 7–35 19 ± 6 19 19 7–31
Max. LA volume, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 39 ± 10 38 39 18–59 37 ± 9 36 37 19–54
LA EF (%) 46 ± 10 46 47 26–66 49 ± 11 48 49 28–70
LA SV, indexed to BSA (ml/m2) 18 ± 6 17 18 6–30 18 ± 6 18 18 7–29
  1. LV Left ventricular; RV right ventricular; EF ejection fraction; SV stroke volume; EDV end-diastolic volume; ESV end-systolic volume; LA left atrium; Min minimum; Max maximum. Normal reference ranges are defined as the 95% prediction interval
  2. Study cohort—excluded subjects with history of CVD or with risk factors of CVD -hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking or dyslipidemia
  3. History of CVD—Aortic stenosis, Atrial fibrillation, Heart failure, Mitral stenosis, Previous PCI, Previous CABG, Valve surgery, TAVI, Hx of myocardial infarction
  4. Reference ranges were calculated based on the formulae mean ± t0.975,n−1*sqrt[(n + 1)/n]*SD
  5. *CI calculated based on the SE
  6. **p value for testing Male vs Female