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Table 2 Healthy subjects: Global and regional peak rotation (°) and global time to peak rotation (ms)*

From: Regional assessment of left ventricular torsion by CMR tagging

  Peak apex rotation Peak mid rotation
Segments Total Endo Epi Total Endo Epi
IS 8.7 ± 3.2 9.2 ± 3.7 8.4 ± 3.1 3.5 ± 2.1 3.5 ± 2.1 3.5 ± 2.1
AS 12.4 ± 5.5 13.5 ± 5.7 11.3 ± 5.0 6.4 ± 1.8 6.8 ± 1.9 6.2 ± 1.8
AN 16.4 ± 7.7 17.5 ± 8.2 15.9 ± 7.5 6.9 ± 2.5 7.1 ± 2.6 6.6 ± 2.4
AL 15.7 ± 6.1 16.6 ± 6.3 15.5 ± 6.1 5.5 ± 2.4 5.8 ± 2.3 5.4 ± 2.4
IL 9.7 ± 3.9 9.8 ± 4.0 9.6 ± 3.6 4.8 ± 2.1 5.0 ± 2.2 4.7 ± 2.1
IN 7.3 ± 3.6 7.6 ± 4.1 7.4 ± 3.3 4.3 ± 1.8 4.4 ± 1.7 4.3 ± 1.8
Global 10.5 ± 3.4 11.0 ± 3.5 10.2 ± 3.3 3.8 ± 1.6 3.9 ± 1.6 3.8 ± 1.6
Global timing 384 ± 98 384 ± 98 387 ± 98 194 ± 94 194 ± 94 194 ± 94
  Peak base rotation Peak negative base rotation
Segments Total Endo Epi Total Endo Epi
IS 2.3 ± 2.0 2.3 ± 2.0 2.4 ± 2.0 -5.6 ± 4.1 -6.1 ± 4.3 -5.4 ± 4.0
AS 4.4 ± 2.1 4.6 ± 2.2 4.4 ± 2.1 -4.6 ± 2.3 -4.8 ± 2.4 -4.5 ± 2.2
AN 3.3 ± 1.8 3.3 ± 1.9 3.1 ± 1.7 -7.1 ± 3.5 -7.8 ± 4.0 -6.8 ± 3.0
AL 1.9 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.3 -9.4 ± 3.7 -10.2 ± 4.0 -9.1 ± 3.7
IL 3.3 ± 1.6 3.4 ± 1.7 3.3 ± 1.5 -4.6 ± 2.2 -4.9 ± 2.3 -4.5 ± 2.2
IN 3.8 ± 3.0 3.8 ± 3.1 3.9 ± 3.0 -3.5 ± 3.0 -4.1 ± 3.4 -2.9 ± 2.7
Global 2.1 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.2 -4.4 ± 1.8 -4.9 ± 1.8 -4.1 ± 1.8
Global timing 117 ± 19 108 ± 28 109 ± 28 377 ± 41 373 ± 42 378 ± 39
  1. *"Global" is the whole circumference, "total" represents the endo- and epicardial regions together. It can be seen that rotation is largest in the anterolateral region, and smallest in the inferior region. This however does not hold for the positive peak in base and mid rotation, here anteroseptal is largest. Rotation is largest in the endocardial region. The endocardium reaches its peak rotation shortly before the epicardium. IS: inferoseptal, AS: anteroseptal, AN: anterior, AL: anterolateral, IL: inferolateral, IN: inferior.