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Table 3 Healthy subjects: Global and regional peak torsion (CL shear angle (°)) and global time to peak torsion (ms)*

From: Regional assessment of left ventricular torsion by CMR tagging

  BASE-APEX BASE-MID MID-APEX
Segments Total Endo Epi Total Endo Epi Total Endo Epi
IS 6.7 ± 3.3 6.6 ± 3.2 6.9 ± 3.6 8.6 ± 4.3 8.5 ± 4.1 9.0 ± 4.5 8.8 ± 4.5 8.6 ± 4.3 9.3 ± 4.9
AS 8.3 ± 3.2 8.2 ± 3.1 8.3 ± 3.3 10.4 ± 3.6 10.0 ± 3.6 10.7 ± 4.1 10.1 ± 5.8 10.0 ± 5.5 10.0 ± 5.8
AN 11.7 ± 4.7 11.4 ± 4.6 12.2 ± 4.7 13.3 ± 6.1 13.3 ± 6.0 13.3 ± 6.0 13.5 ± 5.5 13.1 ± 5.5 14.4 ± 5.8
AL 12.4 ± 3.9 11.9 ± 3.7 13.1 ± 4.0 14.8 ± 4.4 14.6 ± 4.3 15.4 ± 4.6 13.5 ± 5.6 12.8 ± 5.3 14.5 ± 6.1
IL 6.5 ± 2.5 5.9 ± 2.5 6.8 ± 2.5 9.3 ± 4.2 9.2 ± 4.2 9.8 ± 4.4 8.0 ± 4.5 7.1 ± 4.4 8.4 ± 4.5
IN 5.0 ± 3.3 5.0 ± 3.4 5.0 ± 3.2 7.7 ± 4.2 7.9 ± 4.1 7.9 ± 4.4 6.7 ± 3.6 6.5 ± 3.5 7.0 ± 3.8
Global 7.7 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.3 8.0 ± 1.5 8.2 ± 2.3 8.2 ± 2.2 8.3 ± 2.3 8.1 ± 1.1 7.6 ± 1.1 8.5 ± 1.3
Global timing 366 ± 24 366 ± 32 367 ± 25 357 ± 33 356 ± 32 355 ± 33 370 ± 28 369 ± 26 367 ± 25
  1. *"Global" is the whole circumference, "total" represents the endo- and epicardial regions together. It can be seen that torsion is largest in the anterolateral region, and smallest in the inferior region. Torsion is also largest in the epicardial region. Peak base-mid torsion occurs before peak mid-apex torsion. IS: inferoseptal, AS: anteroseptal, AN: anterior, AL: anterolateral, IL: inferolateral, IN: inferior.