Bright blood contrast from gradient echo pulse sequences. Gradient echo pulse sequences often use very short repetition times to enable fast imaging. This results in limited recovery of the tissue magnetisation between pulses. Tissue that remains within the slice therefore has a reduced signal. Blood that flows through the image slice is constantly being replaced by fully magnetised blood which is able to generate a much higher signal when the excitation pulse is applied, resulting in a bright blood appearance. Flow-related enhancement can clearly be seen in the ascending and descending aorta on the bright blood spoiled gradient echo image example. Note that there is less flow-related enhancement within the main pulmonary artery and atria as the blood is not flowing through the image slice and is therefore partially saturated.