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Table 1 MRI in Patients with Pacemakers and ICDs.

From: Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacemakers: era of "MR Conditional" designs

Author Device Year Patient/Studies Report Type MRI
Condition
Findings
Iberer [8] PPM 1987 1/1 Case   No adverse effect
Alonga [11] PPM 1989 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Brain
No adverse effect
Inbar [12] PPM 1993 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Brain
No adverse effect
Gimbel [15] PPM 1996 5/5 Retrospective Intentional 0.35-1.5T
Cardiac, Brain, C-Spine
Two second pause
Garcia-Boloa [16] PPM 1998 1/2 Case Intentional 1.0 T
Brain
No adverse effect
Fontaine [98] PPM 1998 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Brain, C-Spine
Rapid pacing
Sommer [143] PPM 1998 18/18 Prospective 0.5 T
Brain, Cardiac, Vascular
Asynchronous mode due to activation of the reed switch in all patients
Sommer [18] PPM 2000 45/51 Prospective 0.5 T
Multiple
No adverse effect
Valhaus [20] PPM 2001 32/34 Prospective 0.5T
Multiple
Decrease in battery voltage recovered at 3 months
Martin [29] PPM 2004 54/62 Prospective 1.5 T
Multiple
Significant change in pacing threshold in 9.4% of leads, and 1.9% of leads requiring an increase in programmed output.
Del Ojo [32] PPM 2005 13/13 Prospective 2.0 T
Multiple
No adverse effect.
Rozner [41] PPM 2005 2/2 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Thorax, Lumbar
Transient change to ERI in 1 patient.
Gimbel [33] PPM 2005 10/11 Prospective 1.5 T
Brain
C-Spine
Small variances in pacing threshold were seen in four patients.
Sommer [50] PPM 2006 115/82 Prospective 1.5 T
Extra-thoracic
Significant increase in pacing threshold, decreased lead impedance, and decrease in battery voltage. No inhibition of pacing or arrhythmias and no leads which required an increase in pacing output.
Heatlie [52] PPM 2007 5/6 Prospective 0.5 T Cardiac Pacing at maximum voltage at a fixed rate of 100 beats/minute in one patient.
Anfinsen [22] ICD 2002 1/1 Case Inadvertent 0.5 T
Brain
Inappropriate sensing, battery voltage transient change to EOL.
Fiek [28] ICD 2004 1/1 Case Inadvert 0.5 T
Brain
Unable to communicate with device.
Coman [30] ICD 2004 11/11 Prospective 1.5 T
Cardiac, Vascular, General
Brief asymptomatic pause in 1 patient.
Unable to communicate with device in 1 patient.
Gimbel [34] ICD 2005 7/8 Prospective 1.5 T
Brain, L-Spine
"Power on reset" electrical reset requiring reprogramming in 1 patient.
Roguin [39] ICD 2005 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T Cardiac No adverse effect.
Wollmann [44] ICD 2005 1/3 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Brain
No adverse effect.
Naehle [46] ICD 2006 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Brain
No adverse effect.
Nazarian [47] PPM 31
ICD 24
2006 68/55 Prospective 1.5 T No adverse effect.
Nemec [48] ICD 2006 1/1 Case Unintentional Not specified
Brain
Noise detected as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, with no therapy presumably due to magnetic mode activation. Asynchronous pacing due to noise-reversal mode.
Sardanelli [144] PPM 2006 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Breast
No adverse effect.
Mollerus [56] PPM 32
ICD 5
2008 37/40 Prospective 1.5 T
Truncal, non-truncal
No adverse effect.
No changes in cardiac troponin-I
Naehle [57] PPM 2008 44/51 Prospective 3.0 T
Brain
No adverse effect.
No changes in cardiac troponin-I
(Use of transmit-receive head coil)
Gimbel [59] PPM 2009 1/1 Case Intentional 2.0 T
Brain
Asystole
Goldsher [60] PPM 2009 1/1 Case Intentional 1.5 T
Cervical
No adverse effect.
Scan one day after implant
Pacemaker dependent
Mollerus [61] PPM 46
ICD 6
2009 52/59 Prospective 1.5 Truncal, non-truncal MRI-related ectopy 7 pt
Naehle [62] PPM 2009 47/171 Case Intentional 1.5 T
General
Statistically significant but clinically irrelevant change in pacing capture threshold and battery voltage.
2 or more serial scans.
Pulver [64] PPM 2009 8/11 Prospective 1.5 T
Cardiac, non-cardiac
No adverse effect.
Congenital heart disease with 9 epicardial leads.
Strach [67] PPM 2010 114/114 Prospective 0.2 T
General
No adverse effect
Millar [66] PPM 2010 1/1 1.5 T
Brain C-spine
No adverse effects
Burke [117] PPM 24
ICD 10
CRT ICD 4
2010 38/92 Prospective 1.5 T
Brain, Spine, Pelvis, Extremity
No adverse effects
No changes defibrillation threshold (ICD)
Buendia [100] PPM 28
ICD 5
2010 33/33 Prospective 1.5 T
Cardiac Brain, Spine,
Abdominal, Extremity
Temporary communication failure in two patients.
Sensing errors during imaging in two patients.,
Safety signal generated in one pacemaker at the maximum magnetic resonance frequency and output level.
Cohen [70] PPM 74
ICD 31
2010 105/105 Prospective 1.5 T No deaths, device failures, genrerator/lead replacements, loss of capture, or electrical reset.
Decrease in battery voltage of ≥ 0.04 V in 2%
Lead impedance change ≥ 50 Ohms in 3%
High voltage impedance change ≥ 3 Ohms in 10%
Decrease in R wave amplitude in 2%
Pacing threshold increase of ≥ 0.5 V at 0.4 ms in 1% of leads
Wilkoff [81] MR ConditionalPPM 2011 226/226 Prospective 1.5 T
Brain and lumbar
No adverse effect
Quarta [140] MR ConditionalPPM 2011 1/1 Prospective 1.5 T
Brain, Cardiac
No adverse effect
  1. Adapted and Updated from Shinbane et al. 2007. [1]
  2. Case = case report, EOL = end-of-life, ERI = elective-replacement indices; ICD-implantable cardiac defibrillator; PPM = pacemaker; T = Tesla,.