- Workshop presentation
- Open Access
Four-dimensional velocity encoded MRI improves blood flow quantification in patients with semilunar valve stenosis
© Nordmeyer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Published: 1 February 2012
Stenoses might cause complex flow patterns, which are sometimes difficult to assess quantitatively with standard two-dimensional (2D) VEC MRI. We sought to evaluate the use of four-dimensional (4D) velocity encoded magnetic resonance imaging (VEC MRI) for blood flow quantification in patients with semilunar valve stenosis.
Peak velocities (Vmax) and stroke volumes (SV) were quantified by 2D and 4D VEC MRI in volunteers (n=7) and patients with semilunar valve stenosis (n=18). Measurements were performed immediately above the aortic or pulmonary valve with both techniques (=level 1) and, additionally, at further predefined planes in the ascending aorta and in the pulmonary trunk within the 4D dataset. 4D VEC MRI streamline analysis identified “individualized” planes of highest flow velocity (4Dmax-targeted) for further measurements. In patients, Vmax was also measured by Doppler-echocardiography.
In patients, 4D VEC MRI (2.7m/s) showed comparable Vmax to Doppler-echocardiography (2.8m/s) and significantly higher Vmax than 2D VEC MRI (2.4m/s) (p<0.03) at level 1. 4Dmax-targeted revealed highest Vmax values (3.1m/s). Correlations of MR-derived peak velocities with Doppler-echocardiography were r=0.62 for 2D, r=0.67 for 4D at level 1 and r=0.80 for 4Dmax-targeted. 4D showed higher agreement with Doppler-echocardiography than did 2D VEC MRI at level 1 (p=0.039).
SV at level 1 were comparable between both techniques. SV measurements at different anatomical levels in the ascending aorta showed a significantly larger variance in patients with complex flow patterns than in volunteers with laminar flow patterns (p=0.004).
Comparison between 2D (level 1) and 4D (level 1 and 4D max-targeted) derived peak velocity (+Doppler-echocardiography) in the ascending aorta in patients with aortic valve stenosis and in the pulmonary trunk in patients with pulmonary valve stenosis
Vmax (m/s) ECHO
Vmax (m/s) 2D Level 1
Vmax (m/s) 4D Level 1
Vmax (m/s) 4D max-targeted
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.