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Table 3 Factors influencing the accuracy of T1-measurement using inversion and/or saturation recovery methods

From: T1-mapping in the heart: accuracy and precision

Protocol parameters

Matrix size

• Underestimation in T1 depends on the protocol parameters

Parallel imaging

Partial Fourier

• Precision depends on the sampling strategy

Flip angle

Echo-spacing (BW & TR)

• Partial volume errors depend on the spatial resolution and slice thickness

# images & acquisition strategy

  Inversion times

  Recovery times

Raw filter

Sequence design

Slice profile

• T1 measurement accuracy is influenced by the sequence design

Inversion pulse efficiency & BW

SSFP steady state run-up

Scanner adjustments


• Off-resonance causes both regional and global underestimation of T1

Center frequency adjustment

• Short z-FOV influences recovery time for inflowing blood

B1 transmit ampl (flip angle)

• Scan to scan variation affects reproducibility


Fit model

2 vs 3 parameters

• Fitting additional parameters worsens precision

Multi-fit MagIR vs PSIR

Tissue characteristics


• Tissue characteristics influence the apparent inversion recovery


Fatty infiltration

• Partial volume effects are an artifact and may contaminate measurements



Heart rate

• Loss of spatial resolution due to motion increases the partial volume problem

Respiratory motion