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Table 1 Overview of technical developments in 3D whole-heart first-pass perfusion

From: A review of 3D first-pass, whole-heart, myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Lead Author Year Reconstruction Method Trajectory Other Stated Efficiencies* US Factor (Nominal) US Factor (True) Resolution/mm Acquisition Window/ms Stress Agent Free Breathing† Field Strength/T
Shin [70] 2008 TSENSE Cartesian - 6 6 3.0 × 4.5 × 10.0 304 No No 3
Shin [19] 2010 TSENSE Cartesian - 6 6 4.5 × 6.7 × 10.0a/2.8 × 4.2 × 10.0b 116-145a/254-305b No No 3
Manka [79] 2011 k-t SENSE Cartesian Partial Fourier NS 6.3 2.3 × 2.3 × 10.0 200 Yes No 3
Vitanis [81] 2011 k-t PCA (compartment based) Cartesian Elliptical Shutter (75 %); Partial Fourier (75 %) 10 5.6 - 7.5 2.3 × 2.3 × 10.0 225 Yes No 3
DiBella [25] 2012 CS (temporal) Radial - ~14‡ ~14‡ 2.2 × 2.2 × 8.0 310 No No 3
Manka [125] 2012 k-t PCA Cartesian Partial Fourier 10 7 2.3 × 2.3 × 10.0 NS Yes No 1.5
Jogiya [126] 2012 k-t PCA Cartesian Partial Fourier 10 7 2.3 × 2.3 × 5.0 NS Yes No 3
Chen [44] 2012 CS (spatio- temporal) Radial Partial Fourier (75 %) ~9-11‡ ~9-11‡ (1.8-2.8) × (1.8-2.8) × (6.0-10.0) 300 No No 3
Shin [39] 2013 k-t SENSE Spiral - 5 5 2.4 × 2.4 × 9.0~ 230 No No 1.5
Giri [24] 2014 TWIST (GRAPPA) Cartesian 2D Partial Fourier§ (87.5 %/87.5 %) 3 3 2.2 × 2.8 × 8.0 300-380 No No 1.5
Motwani [56] 2014 k-t PCA Cartesian 2D Partial Fourier (70 %/70 %) 10 7 2.3 × 2.3 × 5.0 192 Yes No 3
Schmidt [58] 2014 k-t PCA (motion-corrected) Cartesian Elliptical Shutter; 3D Partial Fourier (62.5 %/75 %/75 %) 10 NS 2.3 × 2.3 × 10.0 205-225 No Yes 3
Akçakaya [105] 2014 CS (localised constraints) Cartesian Elliptical Shutter (75 %) 10 10 2.3 × 2.3 × 10.0 250 No Both 1.5
Jogiya [57] 2014e k-t PCA Cartesian Elliptical Shutter; 2D Partial Fourier (75 %/75 %) 10 7 2.3 × 2.3 × 5.0 191 Yes No 3
Jogiya [21] 2014 k-t PCA Cartesian Elliptical Shutter; 3D Partial Fourier (NS/75 %/75 %) 10 7 2.3 × 2.3 × 5.0 191 Yes No 3
Wang [45] 2014e CS (spatio-temporal) Cartesian Partial Fourier (83 %) 11 11 (2.0-2.4) × (2.0-2.4) × (4.0-6.0) 255 No No 3
Manka [130] 2015e k-t PCA Cartesian Elliptical Shutter; 2D Partial Fourier (75 %/75 %) 10 7 2.3 × 2.3 × 5.0 200 Yes No 3
  1. Clinically relevant/tested techniques – see Table 2 for details
  2. *Zero padding typically not stated when applied, so not included in the table
  3. †Imaging during breath-hold assumed in cases where literature did not state
  4. ‡US factor estimated from number of radial projections and number of readouts: NNyquist = (π/2) * Nreadouts, N.b. using this definition radial trajectories require π/2 greater acceleration to be equivalent to a Cartesian acquisition time
  5. §Only applied in cases of high HR
  6. aSystolic acquisition values
  7. bDiastolic acquisition values
  8. ~Nominal spatial resolution can be affected by off-resonance errors in long spiral readouts
  9. eDate of early online publication, yet to be published fully at time of print
  10. NB The acquisition window as far as possible is the pure image data acquisition time not including saturation recovery delay pre-imaging as that is not normally motion-sensitive
  11. Abbreviations: US undersampling; NS not stated; others as defined in text