Aortic Stenosis. a Systolic frame from a balanced SSFP cine CMR acquisition in the left ventricular outflow tract plane shows a turbulent jet emanating from a thickened aortic valve suggesting significant stenosis. b Short axis view at the level of the aortic valve demonstrates a bicuspid valve en face with calcification of the anterior leaflet as well as at the commissural junctions. c Phase contrast image at mid-systole with VENC setting of 250 cm/s shows extensive aliasing, suggesting the peak velocity is considerably higher than 2.5 m/s.
d Repeat phase contrast acquisition at the same location and point in the cardiac cycle with VENC increased to 450 cm/s eliminates aliasing, allowing for accurate quantification of peak velocity across this stenotic valve. See also Additional file 1