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Table 1 Summary of characteristics for Bloch simulation numerically optimized saturation pulses

From: Saturation pulse design for quantitative myocardial T1 mapping

   Flip Angle [°] Duration [ms] Relative RF Energy Relative Peak RF Power Residual |MZ/M0| [%] mean±std (max)
Reference saturation pulses 90°-90°-90° 90-90-90 18.7 1.0 1.0 2.86±2.98 (11.31)
BIR4-90 25.1 μT (adiabatic) 11.1 11.0 4.1 0.92±0.92 (5.32)
Optimized for 1.5T BIR4-90 20.6 μT (adiabatic) 12.2 10.0 2.9 0.30±0.14 (0.91)
B0 = ±120 Hz 3 pulse train 90−107−126 19.5 2.7 5.2 0.40±0.21 (0.80)
\( {\widehat{B}}_1 \)=0.7–1.0 4 pulse train 96−91−127−124 23.6 3.7 5.2 0.11±0.07 (0.25)
B1 field = 26.9 μT 5 pulse train 89−106−89−145−127 27.4 4.7 5.2 0.06±0.03 (0.11)
6 pulse train 116−99−81−92−146−139 30.6 5.7 5.2 0.02±0.01 (0.04)
Optimized for 3T 3 pulse train 220−136−93 20.8 2.0 1.4 4.33±2.49 (8.70)
B0 = ±240 Hz 4 pulse train 75−103−149−213 25.0 2.4 1.4 1.99±1.22 (4.17)
\( {\widehat{B}}_1 \)= 0.4–1.2 5 pulse train 99−76−120−169−220 29.2 3.0 1.4 0.64±0.41 (1.58)
B1 field = 14 μT 6 pulse train 115−90−125−85−176−223 32.8 3.6 1.4 0.27±0.19 (0.87)
  1. Total duration values include post-spoiler and pre-spoilers where applicable. Residual MZ/M0 values are simulated using Bloch equation simulations and the mean, standard deviation, and maximum are calculated over the entire optimization space, i.e. B0, \( {\widehat{B}}_1 \), and T1. Residual MZ/M0 for reference pulses was evaluated over the 1.5 T \( {\widehat{B}}_1 \) range. Relative RF energy and power are normalized to a reference 90°-90°-90° pulse train as described in the methods