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Table 1 Nitinol guidewire heating in ASTM gel phantom

From: Positive contrast spiral imaging for visualization of commercial nitinol guidewires with reduced heating

  Wire + Catheter Wire 10 cm distal to catheter Wire only
  Measured Theoretical Measured Theoretical Measured Theoretical
Cartesian bSSFP (flip = 60°, TR = 2.54 ms) 50.39 °C -- 5.41 °C -- 5.90 °C --
Cartesian bSSFP (flip = 45°, TR = 2.54 ms) 27.37 °C 28.34 °C 3.10 °C 3.05 °C 3.05 °C 3.32 °C
Cartesian GRE (flip = 20°, TR = 2.86 ms) 4.31 °C 4.97 °C 0.56 °C 0.53 °C 0.65 °C 0.58 °C
Cartesian GRE (flip = 10°, TR = 2.86 ms) 1.07 °C 1.24 °C 0.14 °C 0.13 °C 0.16 °C 0.15 °C
Spiral GRE (16 interleaves, flip = 10°, TR = 5.16 ms) 0.61 °C 0.70 °C 0.09 °C 0.08 °C 0.08 °C 0.08 °C
Spiral GRE (8 interleaves, flip = 10°, TR = 8.60 ms) 0.37 °C 0.44 °C 0.03 °C 0.05 °C 0.07 °C 0.05 °C
  1. Temperature increase from baseline observed during 2 minutes of continuous imaging in an acrylic gel phantom. Temperature was measured at the tip of the nitinol guidewire (Nitrex, Covidien, Plymouth, MN) with the guidewire collocated with the catheter, with the guidewire extended 10 cm distal to catheter and with the wire alone. Theoretical predications, based on flip angle and TR (Eqn2), of the relative heating compared to Cartesian bSSFP (flip angle = 60°) are also displayed