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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study group

From: Benefits of chronic total coronary occlusion percutaneous intervention in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: insights from a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

  Successful CTO-PCI n = 32
Age (y) 59 ± 10.2
Female 8 (21 %)
Hypertension 15 (47 %)
Hyperlipidemia 17 (53 %)
Diabetes 10 (31 %)
HbA1C (%) 7 ± 1.7
History of smoking
 No 13 (41 %)
 Yes 11 (34 %)
 Current smoker 8 (25 %)
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1 ± 0.2
GFR (MDRD-4; ml/min) 58 ± 5.2
Previous stroke 1 (3 %)
Peripheral arterial vasculopathy 8 (25 %)
LVEF (%) by echocardiography 30 ± 6.9
30 (25–35.8)
ACEF score* 2 ± 0.8
2 (1.4–2.7)
Angina 11 (34 %)
NYHA functional class
 1 0
 2 23 (72 %)
 3 9 (28 %)
Atrial fibrillation/Atrial flutter 1 (3 %)
Previous MI 18 (56 %)
Previous STEMI 14 (44 %)
Q waves 19 (59 %)
Previous PCI 11 (34 %)
Previous CABG 4 (13 %)
ACEi/ARB 26 (81 %)
Beta blockers 29 (91 %)
Aldosterone receptor antagonists 14 (44 %)
Diuretics 16 (50 %)
Digoxin 1 (3 %)
Statin 30 (94 %)
  1. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) and n (%). ACEi indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, GFR glomerular filtration rate, HbA1C glycosylated hemoglobin, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, NYHA New York Heart Association functional class, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, STEMI ST-elevation myocardial infarction
  2. *ACEF score: age (y)/ejection fraction (%) +1 (if serum creatinine >2 mg/dL)