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Table 2 Frequency of abnormal CMR findings

From: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance patterns of biopsy proven cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis

Pathology Frequency Appearance Normal value
pathologic LV and or RV ventricular kinesic pattern 95 %   -
LV diastolic dysfunction 85 %   -
LV hypokinesia 75 %   -
RV hypokinesia 70 %   -
RV diastolic dysfunction 65 %   -
LV intraventricular dyssynchrony 65 %   -
RV intraventricular dyssynchrony 60 %   -
RV dyskinesia 10 %   -
Pericardial Effusion 80 %   
Minimal Effusion 35 % ≤5 mm  
Moderate Effusion 45 % >5 mm ≤5 mm [20]
RV-EF 74 % below -2SD of normal ≥52 % (f); ≥50 % (m) ; <60 years [15]
LV-EF 50 % below -2SD of normal ≥58 % (f); ≥57 % (m) ; <60 years [15]
RV-EDVI 32 % above +2SD of normal ≤96 ml/m2 (f); ≤111 ml/m2 (m) ; <60 years [15]
LV-EDVI 20 % above +2SD of normal ≤95 ml/m2 (f); ≤100 ml/m2 (m) ; <60 years [15]
LV-MMI 10 % above +2SD of normal ≤77 g/m2 (f); ≤91 g/m2 (m); <60 years [15]
RV EDD in 4CV 80 % above +2SD of normal <39 mm (f); <49 mm (m) [16]
LV myocardial thickness 35 % above +2SD of normal Segment 9: ≤9.3 mm (f); ≤11.4 mm (m) Segment 11: ≤7.5 mm (f); ≤9.1 mm (m) [17]
RV myocardial thickness 10 % ≥5 mm <5 mm [18, 19]
 Inversion time localizer 50 % Pathologic nulling pattern Blood nulls first, myocardium and spleen second [21]
LGE visual analysis 69 %   -
Visual diffuse 53 % diffuse, or no reasonable nulling -
intermediate-signal intensity 16 % linear and patchy -
LGE semi-quantitative analysis 100 %   
intermediate-signal intensity 100 % 17–37 % of LV mass -
full intensity 94 % 0–11 % of LV mass -
  1. 4CV Four-chamber view, EDD End-diastolic diameter, LGE Late Gadolinium enhancement, LV left ventricle, LV-EDVI Left ventricular end-diastolic volume index, LV-EF Left ventricular ejection fraction, LV-MMI Left ventricular myocardial mass index, RV right ventricle, RV-EDVI Right ventricular end-diastolic volume index, RV-EF Right ventricular ejection fraction, SD Standard deviation